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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 565-571

Acute subdural hematoma evacuation: Predictive factors of outcome

Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital Santa Maria, Lisbon, Portugal

Correspondence Address:
José Pedro Lavrador
Hospital Santa Maria, Av. Prof. Egas Moniz, 1649-035 Lisboa
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ajns.AJNS_51_16

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Background: Acute subdural hematoma (aSDH) is a major cause of admission at Neurosurgical Emergency Department. Nevertheless, concerns regarding surgical indication in patients with multiple comorbidities, poor neurological status, antithrombotic therapy, and older age still persist. Therefore, a correct recognition of predictive outcome factors at hospital discharge is crucial to an appropriate neurosurgical treatment. Methods: Eighty-nine medical records of consecutive patients with age ≥18 years old who were submitted to aSDH evacuation between January 2008 and May 2012 were reviewed. Demographic characteristics, neurological status on admission, anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy, and outcome on discharge were collected. Patients with insufficient data concerning these variables were excluded from the study. Results: Sixty-nine patients were included; 52% were male; 74% were older than 65 years; 41% were under oral antithrombotic therapy (OAT); at admission, 54% presented with Glasgow coma scale (GCS) ≤8; 23% were submitted to a craniectomy instead of a craniotomy; 26% of the patients died, 32% were dependent, and 42% were independent on discharge. Crude analysis revealed craniectomy, A/A pupils, GCS ≤8 at admission statistically significant related with the worst outcome (P < 0.05). In the adjusted evaluation only A/A pupils (P = 0.04) was associated to poor outcome (spontaneous etiology P = 0.052). Considering daily living independency at hospital discharge, either male gender (P = 0.044) and A/A pupils (P = 0.030) were related to the worst outcome. No effect of age in outcome was observed. Conclusions: Male gender and A/A pupils are associated with lower probability of achieving independency living at hospital discharge. A/A pupils, low GCS at admission, spontaneous etiology, and craniectomy were associated with the worst outcome. Age and OAT were not predictive factors in this series. Caution should be taken when considering these factors in the surgical decision.

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