|Year : 2018 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 1026-1032
P53 and Ki-67 expression in primary pediatric brain tumors: Does it correlate with presentation, histological grade, and outcome?
Vikas Sharma, Yawar Shoaib, Laxmi Narayan Gupta, Amit Dagar
Department of Neurosurgery, PGIMER and Dr RML Hospital, New Delhi, India
|Date of Web Publication||23-Oct-2018|
Dr. Yawar Shoaib
Department of Neurosurgery, Room No 202, PGI Building, PGIMER and Dr RML Hospital, Baba Kharak Singh Marg, New Delhi - 110 001
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Context: Pediatric brain tumors are a vexing problem for the neurosurgeon due to the fragile patient cohort. We attempt to find parameters which can help us to treat and prognosticate these patients in a better way. Aims: This study aims to correlate clinical presentation, outcome, and histological grade with P53 and Ki-67 expression in primary pediatric brain tumors. Setting Design: This was a prospective, observational study. Patients and Methods: Forty-seven patients with primary brain tumors in the age group 0–18 years were included in this study. Clinical presentation was noted. Patients were operated, and specimen was sent for histopathological and immunohistochemistry examination for p53 and Ki-67. The WHO classification of 2007 was used to grade the tumors. Follow-up was done at 3 and 6 months with Glasgow outcome score. Expression of p53 and Ki-67 in different tumors was correlated with clinical presentation, tumor grade and outcome. Analysis Method: Statistical Package for Social Science version 17. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There was statistically significant correlation between high tumor grade and high Ki-67 levels (P = 0.000). On post hoc analysis, there was a significant difference between p53 levels in Grade 1 and Grade 4 tumors. There was statistically significant correlation between neurological deficit and higher p53 levels (P = 0.040). There was statistically significant correlation between poor outcome and higher p53 (P = 0.034) and Ki-67 (P = 0.000) levels at 3 months follow-up which continued at 6 months. Conclusions: From this study, we conclude that p53 and Ki-67 expression in pediatric brain tumors is associated with poor outcome and correlates with tumor grade. Moreover, p53 expression correlates with neurological deficit.
Keywords: Ki-67, p53, pediatric brain tumors, WHO grade
|How to cite this article:|
Sharma V, Shoaib Y, Gupta LN, Dagar A. P53 and Ki-67 expression in primary pediatric brain tumors: Does it correlate with presentation, histological grade, and outcome?. Asian J Neurosurg 2018;13:1026-32
|How to cite this URL:|
Sharma V, Shoaib Y, Gupta LN, Dagar A. P53 and Ki-67 expression in primary pediatric brain tumors: Does it correlate with presentation, histological grade, and outcome?. Asian J Neurosurg [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Dec 15];13:1026-32. Available from: http://www.asianjns.org/text.asp?2018/13/4/1026/231080
| Introduction|| |
Malignant brain tumors are the most common solid tumors in childhood. They are the leading cause of cancer-related death in this age group and account for 20%–30% of all childhood cancers. The common pediatric brain tumors are gliomas, pineal tumors, craniopharyngiomas, teratomas, granulomas, and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs, primarily and medulloblastoma). In children, around 60% of brain tumors occur below the tentorium, whereas, in adults, majority of tumors occur in the supratentorial compartment. The clinical presentation of patients with brain tumors depends on tumor location, tumor type, and the age of the patient. Surgery with complete resection, if feasible, is the foundation of treatment along with radiation therapy and chemotherapy based on the diagnosis and other factors. P53 and Ki-67 have been widely used as markers to predict outcome in various malignancies. Studies regarding pediatric brain tumors in India are few, and different studies have given different results regarding the role of p53 and Ki-67 in pediatric brain tumors. This study analyzed the clinical presentation, histological grade, and outcome in primary pediatric brain tumors and correlated it with p53 and Ki-67 levels.
| Patients and Methods|| |
This prospective observational study was conducted in the Departments of Neurosurgery and Pathology in a tertiary care teaching institute from November 2014 to April 2016. It was approved by the Ethics and Scientific Committee of the Institute. 47 newly diagnosed patients with primary brain tumors in the age group 0–18 years were included in this study. Informed consent was taken from the patients, and their approval was taken for scientific publication of the data. Patients who had taken chemotherapy or radiotherapy before the surgery were excluded from the study. All patients were evaluated by history, clinical examination, laboratory and radiological investigations. The clinical presentation in terms of good (13–15) or poor (3–12) Glasgow, score (GCS) was noted. The presence or absence of neurodeficit and papilledema was noted. Patients were operated by craniotomy or craniectomy depending on the location of the tumor, and excision/decompression was done. If hydrocephalus was present, then patient was first operated for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion (shunt or endoscopic) followed by definitive surgery. The specimen was sent for histopathological and immunohistochemistry examination. Grading of tumor was done according to the WHO criteria 2007., Ki-67 and p53 expression was calculated as percentage positivity.,, Patients were followed up after discharge with Glasgow outcome score (GOS) at three and 6 months (as possible). Good recovery was quantified by GOS (4 and 5), fair recovery by GOS (3), and poor recovery with GOS (1 and 2). The difference in expression of p53 and Ki-67 in various tumors in correlation with clinical presentation, outcome, and histological grade was evaluated using Statistical Package for Social Science software (SPSS) version 17 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, USA). A Chi-square test was performed for categorical data, and mean and standard deviation was calculated for continuous data. Independent t-test was performed for comparison between two groups. Analysis of variance was used for more than two group comparison for parametric data using SPSS version 17. P values were calculated using Chi-square test for the estimation of outcome with type of tumor. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
| Results|| |
Forty-seven cases of pediatric brain tumors were analyzed in the study. The age of patients ranged from 10 months to 17 years. There were 32 male and 15 female patients. The clinical presentation of the patients is summarized in [Table 1]. Vomiting was the most common symptom present in 42 (89.4%) patients followed by headache in 41 (87.2%) and vision loss in 21 (44.7%) patients. 34 (72.3%) patients had papilledema, 35 (74.4%) had neurodeficit and 40 (85.1%) had good GCS (13–15) on presentation. Hydrocephalus was present in 33 (70%) patients, and CSF diversion was done in these patients. There were 31 (66%) infratentorial and 16 (34%) supratentorial tumors. The clinical features of the patients are summarized in [Table 1].
[Table 2] summarizes the histological distribution of the tumors. Medulloblastoma was the most common tumor constituting 17 (36.17%) of the patients. Pilocytic astrocytoma was the next most common tumor in our series constituting 7 (14.8%) of the cases. Other tumor types included glioblastoma multiforme (4), ependymomas (4), anaplastic ependymomas (4), and craniopharyngiomas (3). There were 2 cases each of pilomyxoid astrocytoma, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, and supratentorial PNET. There was 1 case each of diffuse astrocytoma and oligoastrocytoma.
The clinical parameters (GCS, papilledema, and neurodeficit) were analyzed and correlated withp 53 and Ki-67 levels [Table 3]. The meanp53 and Ki-67 levels were higher in patients with poor presenting GCS and papilledema. However, no statistically significant correlation was observed between these parameters and the p53 and Ki-67 levels. Patients with neurological deficit had more mean level of p53 and Ki-67, and there was statistically significant correlation between neurological deficit and high p53 levels with P = 0.040.
|Table 3: Clinical parameters (Glasgow coma scale, papilledema, and neurodeficit) and p53 and Ki-67 levels|
Click here to view
Although mean p53 and Ki-67 levels in low-grade tumors were lower than in high-grade tumors, there was no statistically significant correlation between the WHO grade of tumor and p53 (P = 0.117) levels. However, there was statistically significant correlation between higher WHO grade of tumor and higher Ki-67 levels with P = 0.000 [Table 4]. On post hoc analysis of the data, we found that the levels of p53 were significantly higher in Grade 4 tumors as compared to Grade 1 tumors with P = 0.040 [Table 4].
|Table 4: p53 and Ki-67 levels in different WHO grades of tumor and post hoc analysis for p53|
Click here to view
Patient outcome after surgery and adjuvant therapy (if required) was assessed at 3 and 6 months on the basis of GOS. Out of the 47 patients, 8 (17%) had poor outcome (GOS 1 and 2), 16 (34%) had fair outcome (GOS 3), and 23 (48.9%) had good outcome (GOS 4 and 5) 3 months after surgery [Table 5]. It was observed that the values of bothp53 and Ki-67 were significantly higher in poor outcome group with P = 0.034 and 0.000, respectively. The trend continued at 6 months follow-up with a statistically significant correlation between poor outcome and high p53 and Ki-67 levels with P = 0.012 and 0.001, respectively. Six patients did not complete the follow-up period of 6 months, so they were not taken into the analysis at 6 months.
|Table 5: Comparison between outcome and p53 and Ki-67 levels at 3 and 6 months|
Click here to view
In addition to the above analysis, a subgroup analysis of the patient cohort was also done. There were 17 patients with a diagnosis of glioma which included 9 WHO grade 1 tumors followed by 4 each of WHO grade 2 and 4. We found a statistically significant correlation between higher glioma grade and higher mean p53 and Ki-67 levels with P = 0.001 and <0.001, respectively [Table 6]. Similarly, there was statistically significant correlation between poor outcome and high mean values of p53 (P = 0.007) and Ki-67 (P = 0.014) at 3 months follow-up. At 6 months follow-up, the trend continued with P = 0.011 forp53 and 0.021 for Ki-67, respectively [Table 7].
|Table 6: p53 and ki-67 level in different WHO grades of glioma and ependymoma (subgroup analysis)|
Click here to view
|Table 7: Surgical outcome in different types of gliomas with respect to p53 and Ki-67 level at 3 and 6 months|
Click here to view
In neuroectodermal tumors, we found that there was statistically significant correlation between poor outcome and high mean Ki-67 level (P = 0.047), but not between outcome and p53 level (P = 0.603) at 3 months follow-up [Table 8]. At 6 months, 5 patients could not complete the follow-up period; hence, 14 patients out of 19 were analyzed. There was no statistically significant correlation between outcome and p53 (P = 0.368) and Ki-67 (P = 0.165) levels at 6 months [Table 8].
There were 8 cases of ependymoma. There was statistically significant correlation between grade of ependymoma and Ki-67 level (P = 0.017) but not between grade of ependymoma and p53 level [Table 6]. There was no statistically significant correlation between ependymoma outcome and p53 and Ki-67 level at 3 and 6 months [Table 9].
There were three cases of craniopharyngioma. At 3 months, two patients had poor outcome, and one had good outcome. As the sample size was small, so no subgroup analysis with p53 and Ki-67 level could be done.
| Discussion|| |
Cancer is the most frequently diagnosed disease-related cause of death among children and adolescents. Among all childhood cancers, brain tumors are the most common solid pediatric tumors comprising 40%–50% of all tumors The p53 gene is a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 17 short arm (17p13) and is the single most common target for genetic alterations in human cancer. Disturbances in p53 function are strongly associated with carcinogenesis. Ki-67 is an established marker for proliferative index in cycling cells. Ki-67 presence in a large proportion of cells suggests an aggressive neoplasm. P53 and Ki-67 have been widely used as markers to predict outcome in various malignancies.,
Majority of the patients in our study were males (68%) as compared to females (32%). Studies done by Rickert and Paulus and by Nasir et al. also found that the proportion of males was more than that of females. The most common presenting complaints were vomiting and headache which is common in pediatric brain tumors as seen in the studies by Wilne et al. and Reulecke et al.
Hydrocephalus was present in 33 (70%) patients. Raimondi and Tomita in their study observed that the incidence of hydrocephalus in posterior fossa tumors was 83% whereas Wong et al., observed that the incidence of hydrocephalus was 56.7% in pediatric brain tumors.
In our study, the most common tumor group was that of neuroectodermal tumors (41%) followed by gliomas (36%). In studies by Jain et al., Baldwin and Preston-Martin and Rickert and Paulus astrocytomas were the most common CNS tumors of childhood. However, in studies by Nasir et al. and Kumar, medulloblastomas were the most common tumors.
There was statistically significant correlation between tumor grade and Ki-67 level (P = 0.000). A statistically significant correlation was also observed on post hoc analysis where the levels of p53 were significantly higher in Grade 4 tumors as compared to Grade 1 tumors with a P = 0.040. This can be due to the relatively less number of grade 2 and 3 tumors as the majority of tumors were of grade 1 (25.5%) and grade 4 (49%). Kim et al. observed that P53 and Ki-67 expression was higher in malignant brain tumors, and that there was a close relationship between their expression and histological grade. Studies by Wakimoto et al., Rathi et al., and Chaloob et al. demonstrated a significant relationship between tumor grade and Ki-67 levels in gliomas.
In our study, there was statistically significant correlation between outcome and p53 (P = 0.034) and Ki-67 (P = 0.000) level at three and 6 months follow-up. It was observed that the values of bothp53 and Ki-67 were significantly higher in the poor outcome group. Similar results were observed in studies done by Rickert, Jaros et al., and Montine et al.
In the subgroup analysis for gliomas, there was statistically significant correlation between grade and p53 (P = 0.001) and Ki-67 (P = 0.0001) levels. Studies done by Wakimoto et al. and Rathi et al. suggest similar results. In the same subgroup, there was statistically significant correlation between poor outcome and higher Ki-67 (P = 0.014) and p53 (P = 0.007) levels at 3 months which continued at 6 months follow up with P = 0.021 and 0.021, respectively. The previous studies by Bowers et al. have suggested that Ki-67 has a role as prognostic factor in pediatric astrocytoma. However, Tibbetts et al. and Horbinsk et al. have not inferred that Ki-67 has a role as a marker of prognosis.
In neuroectodermal tumors, there was statistically significant correlation between poor outcome and higher Ki-67 level (P = 0.047) at 3 months follow-up, but there was no statistically significant correlation between surgical outcome and p53 level (P = 0.603). There was no statistically significant correlation between outcome and p53 (P = 0.368) and Ki-67 (P = 0.165) levels at 6 months. However, many previous studies done on neuroectodermal tumors by Jadali et al., Meurer et al., Ferrari et al., Nam et al., and Jaros et al. have suggested the role of p53 and ki-67 as negative prognostic factors.
In ependymomas, there was statistically significant correlation between grades of ependymoma and Ki-67 level (P = 0.017) but not with p53 level (P = 0.158). Erten et al. and Ridley et al. found a significant relation between Ki-67 and histological grade. In a study of 30 pediatric ependymomas, Zamecnik et al. concluded that p53 and Ki-67 positivity was an indicator of aggressive tumor behavior and poor outcome. Verstegen et al. observed no significant relationship between the histological grade of ependymoma and p53 protein, but p53 positive cases had poor outcome. We did not find a significant correlation between outcome and p53 and Ki-67 level. This may be due to the small sample size and small follow-up time of 6 months.
In craniopharyngiomas, the sample size was small, and analysis with p53 and Ki-67 could not be done.
| Conclusions|| |
From this study, we conclude that p53 and ki-67 expression in pediatric brain tumors are associated with poor outcome and correlates with tumor grade. Moreover, p53 expression correlates with neurological deficit. We recommend that p53 and Ki-67 analysis be done in all pediatric brain tumors for better characterization and prognostication. It may also have a role in planning adjuvant therapy in these tumors.
We wish to acknowledge the contribution of the Department of Pathology for their work. No fund or scholarship was used for the purpose of this study.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Baldwin RT, Preston-Martin S. Epidemiology of brain tumors in childhood – A review. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2004;199:118-31.
Rickert CH, Paulus W. Epidemiology of central nervous system tumors in childhood and adolescence based on the new WHO classification. Childs Nerv Syst 2001;17:503-11.
Duffner PK, Cohen ME, Freeman AI. Pediatric brain tumors: An overview. CA Cancer J Clin 1985;35:287-301.
Kleihues P, Burger PC, Scheithauer BW. The new WHO classification of brain tumours. Brain Pathol 1993;3:255-68.
Louis DN, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD, Cavenee WK, Burger PC, Jouvet A, et al.
The 2007 WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system. Acta Neuropathol 2007;114:97-109.
Burns AS, Jaros E, Cole M, Perry R, Pearson AJ, Lunec J. The molecular pathology of p53 in primitive neuroectodermal tumours of the central nervous system. Br J Cancer 2002;86:1117-23.
Jaros E, Lunec J, Perry RH, Kelly PJ, Pearson AD. p53 protein overexpression identifies a group of central primitive neuroectodermal tumours with poor prognosis. Br J Cancer 1993;68:801-7.
Thotakura M, Tirumalasetti N, Krishna R. Role of Ki-67 labeling index as an adjunct to the histopathological diagnosis and grading of astrocytomas. J Cancer Res Ther 2014;10:641-5.
Gerdes J, Lemke H, Baisch H, Wacker HH, Schwab U, Stein H. Cell cycle analysis of a cell proliferation-associated human nuclear antigen defined by the monoclonal antibody Ki-67. J Immunol 1984;133:1710-5.
Cattoretti G, Becker MH, Key G, Duchrow M, Schlüter C, Galle J, et al.
Monoclonal antibodies against recombinant parts of the Ki-67 antigen (MIB 1 and MIB 3) detect proliferating cells in microwave-processed formalin-fixed paraffin sections. J Pathol 1992;168:357-63.
Jin YT, Kayser S, Kemp BL, Ordonez NG, Tucker SL, Clayman GL, et al.
The prognostic significance of the biomarkers p21WAF1/CIP1, p53, and bcl-2 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer 1998;82:2159-65.
Nasir S, Jamila B, Khaleeq S. A retrospective study of primary brain tumors in children under 14 years of age at PIMS, Islamabad. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2010;11:1225-7.
Wilne SH, Ferris RC, Nathwani A, Kennedy CR. The presenting features of brain tumours: A review of 200 cases. Arch Dis Child 2006;91:502-6.
Reulecke BC, Erker CG, Fiedler BJ, Niederstadt TU, Kurlemann G. Brain tumors in children: Initial symptoms and their influence on the time span between symptom onset and diagnosis. J Child Neurol 2008;23:178-83.
Raimondi AJ, Tomita T. Brain tumors during the first year of life. Childs Brain 1983;10:193-207.
Wong TT, Liang ML, Chen HH, Chang FC. Hydrocephalus with brain tumors in children. Childs Nerv Syst 2011;27:1723-34.
Jain A, Sharma MC, Suri V, Kale SS, Mahapatra AK, Tatke M, et al.
Spectrum of pediatric brain tumors in India: A multi-institutional study. Neurol India 2011;59:208-11.
] [Full text]
Kumar R. Scenario of paediatric CNS tumors in India. JK Sci 2006;8:190-2.
Kim DH, Suh YL, Shin DI, Shin HJ, Kim JH. P53 expression and Ki-67 labeling index in brain tumor. Korean J Pathol 1998;32:81-7.
Wakimoto H, Aoyagi M, Nakayama T, Nagashima G, Yamamoto S, Tamaki M, et al.
Prognostic significance of Ki-67 labeling indices obtained using MIB-1 monoclonal antibody in patients with supratentorial astrocytomas. Cancer 1996;77:373-80.
Rathi KR, Radotra BD, Khosla VK. Proliferative index in astrocytic tumours. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2007;50:754-8.
Chaloob MK, Ali HH, Qasim BJ, Mohammed AS. Immunohistochemical expression of Ki-67, PCNA and CD34 in astrocytomas: A clinicopathological study. Oman Med J 2012;27:368-74.
Rickert CH. Prognosis-related molecular markers in pediatric central nervous system tumors. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2004;63:1211-24.
Jaros E, Perry RH, Adam L, Kelly PJ, Crawford PJ, Kalbag RM, et al.
Prognostic implications of p53 protein, epidermal growth factor receptor, and Ki-67 labelling in brain tumours. Br J Cancer 1992;66:373-85.
Montine TJ, Vandersteenhoven JJ, Aguzzi A, Boyko OB, Dodge RK, Kerns BJ, et al.
Prognostic significance of Ki-67 proliferation index in supratentorial fibrillary astrocytic neoplasms. Neurosurgery 1994;34:674-8.
Bowers DC, Gargan L, Kapur P, Reisch JS, Mulne AF, Shapiro KN, et al.
Study of the MIB-1 labeling index as a predictor of tumor progression in pilocytic astrocytomas in children and adolescents. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:2968-73.
Tibbetts KM, Emnett RJ, Gao F, Perry A, Gutmann DH, Leonard JR. Histopathologic predictors of pilocytic astrocytoma event-free survival. Acta Neuropathol 2009;117:657-65.
Horbinski C, Hamilton RL, Lovell C, Burnham J, Pollack IF. Impact of morphology, MIB-1, p53 and MGMT on outcome in pilocytic astrocytomas. Brain Pathol 2010;20:581-8.
Jadali F, Amini E, Esfahani M, Alavi S. Meduloblastoma and the prognostic value of MIB-1 proliferative factor. Iran J Blood Cancer 2009;5:7-10.
Meurer RT, Martins DT, Hilbig A, Ribeiro Mde C, Roehe AV, Barbosa-Coutinho LM, et al.
Immunohistochemical expression of markers Ki-67, neun, synaptophysin, p53 and HER2 in medulloblastoma and its correlation with clinicopathological parameters. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2008;66:385-90.
Ferrari AF, Araújo MB, Aguiar PH, Plese JP. Medulloblastoma: Evaluation of proliferative index by monoclonal antibody Mib-1, its prognostic correlation and therapeutic implications. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2003;61:547-51.
Nam DH, Wang KC, Kim YM, Chi JG, Kim SK, Cho BK. The effect of isochromosome 17q presence, proliferative and apoptotic indices, expression of c-erbB-2, bcl-2 and p53 proteins on the prognosis of medulloblastoma. J Korean Med Sci 2000;15:452-6.
Erten J, Sezai M, Scales M, Tuncer T, Arun S, Centigul N, et al
. Ependymal paediatric intracranial tumors: Clinicopathologic evaluation of 28 cases. Turk J Pathol 2009;25:20-6.
Ridley L, Rahman R, Brundler MA, Ellison D, Lowe J, Robson K, et al.
Multifactorial analysis of predictors of outcome in pediatric intracranial ependymoma. Neuro Oncol 2008;10:675-89.
Zamecnik J, Snuderl M, Eckschlager T, Chanova M, Hladikova M, Tichy M, et al.
Pediatric intracranial ependymomas: Prognostic relevance of histological, immunohistochemical, and flow cytometric factors. Mod Pathol 2003;16:980-91.
Verstegen MJ, Leenstra DT, Ijlst-Keizers H, Bosch DA. Proliferation- and apoptosis-related proteins in intracranial ependymomas: An immunohistochemical analysis. J Neurooncol 2002;56:21-8.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8], [Table 9]