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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 118-121

Markers of fibrinolysis in Indian patients with isolated head trauma


1 Department of Pathology, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital Hospital, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Neurosurgery, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital Hospital, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Meera Sikka
Department of Pathology, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, New Delhi
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ajns.AJNS_278_17

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Context: Head injury causes disseminated intravascular coagulation as the most severe complication which is associated with high mortality. Elevated levels of markers of fibrinolysis such as D-dimer and fibrinopeptide A (FPA) have been correlated with poor outcome in these patients. Aim: The study aimed to correlate the levels of plasma fibrinogen, D-dimer, and FPA with outcome in patients with isolated head trauma. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the Departments of Pathology and Neurosurgery, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi, on 100 patients admitted within 12 h of isolated head trauma. Subjects and Methods: Plasma fibrinogen, D-dimer, and FPA were measured in 100 patients admitted within 12 h of isolated head trauma. While plasma fibrinogen and D-dimer were estimated in all patients, FPA was measured in 45 patients. Statistical Analysis: SPSS (20.2) software was used for mean, standard deviation, and median values of the quantitative parameters, and for all qualitative parameters, their frequencies were obtained. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Elevated D-dimer (>250 ng/ml) and FPA (>3 ng/ml) were observed in 64% and 91.1% patients, respectively. Both D-dimer and FPA were elevated in 66.6% of patients. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) score, calculated using standard criteria, was ≥5 in 28% of patients indicating overt DIC. Hypofibrinogenemia was observed in 48% of patients. D-dimer, FPA, and DIC score was significantly (P < 0.001) higher and plasma fibrinogen significantly (P < 0.001) lower in nonsurvivors as compared to survivors. Elevated D-dimer and FPA and low fibrinogen levels were seen in patients irrespective of severity of injury. Conclusions: Elevated D-dimer and FPA were frequently observed in patients with isolated head trauma. As these markers rise soon after injury and indicate poor outcome, their measurement will help identify patients who will benefit with additional therapy, thus reducing morbidity and mortality.


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