|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 204-209
Cervical, intradural extramedullary solitary fibrous tumor of the spinal cord: A case report and review of the literature
Gregory Glauser, Nikhil Sharma, Michael Kritikos, Neil Rainer Malhotra, Omar Choudhri
Department of Neurological Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
|Date of Submission||11-Jul-2019|
|Date of Acceptance||25-Oct-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||25-Feb-2020|
Dr. Omar Choudhri
Department of Neurological Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Silverstein Pavilion 3rd Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19104
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare, spindle cell neoplasms of the mesenchymal origin. Lesions localized to the spine are exceptionally uncommon, only described in the literature in case reports and small case series. While these lesions are typically benign, there are a few reports in which they recur or present as malignancies. The patient presented in the case herein was a 72-year-old male, who presented with a 1-year history of lower extremity weakness, pain, and numbness and was found to have a cervical, intradural extramedullary tumor. In addition to the case report, the authors perform a thorough review of all previously published cases of spinal SFT.
Keywords: Solitary fibrous tumor, spine, tumor
|How to cite this article:|
Glauser G, Sharma N, Kritikos M, Malhotra NR, Choudhri O. Cervical, intradural extramedullary solitary fibrous tumor of the spinal cord: A case report and review of the literature. Asian J Neurosurg 2020;15:204-9
|How to cite this URL:|
Glauser G, Sharma N, Kritikos M, Malhotra NR, Choudhri O. Cervical, intradural extramedullary solitary fibrous tumor of the spinal cord: A case report and review of the literature. Asian J Neurosurg [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Aug 13];15:204-9. Available from: http://www.asianjns.org/text.asp?2020/15/1/204/279011
| Introduction|| |
Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare spindle cell neoplasms of the mesenchymal origin. These lesions were first described in 1931 as a localized form of pleural mesothelioma. In the time since, SFTs have been reported in numerous extra-pleural locations, including the orbit, upper respiratory tract, nasopharyngeal sinuses, periosteum, soft tissues, skin, prostate, meninges, epiglottis, liver, and thyroid.,,,,,,,,,, The first seven cases of SFT of the central nervous system were described in 1996 by Carneiro et al., two of which were intraspinal. A comprehensive review by Bisceglia et al. in 2011 found that of the 220 cases of SFT reported in the literature since 1996, roughly one-fifth were intraspinal lesions. Since the initial report of intraspinal SFTs, approximately 85 additional intraspinal SFTs have been described in the literature.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Presented herein is an illustrative case of an SFT with an extensive literature review, focused predominately on cervical/thoracic, intradural, and extramedullary tumors.
| Illustrative Case Solitary Fibrous Tumor|| |
The patient, in this case, was a 72-year-old male who presented with a 1-year history of lower extremity weakness, pain, and numbness. Symptoms were initially localized to the right lower extremity and progressively worsened, evolving to include the left lower extremity. Three weeks before presentation, the patient began having difficulty walking and experiencing instability at the knee joint. Interestingly, the patient reported that the pain was limited to his right lower extremity, while the only symptom on the left side was weakness. The patient underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical and thoracic spine and was found to have an intradural enhancing lesion, with associated spinal cord compression [Figure 1]a and [Figure 1]b. The mass, located along the ventral and right lateral surface of the thoracic cord at the C7 vertebral level, appeared to be causing prominent mass effect, severe canal narrowing, and hydrosyringomyelia.
|Figure 1: Pre- and post-operative magnetic resonance imaging demonstrating solitary fibrous tumor. (a) Preoperative sagittal postcontrast T1 images. (b) Preoperative axial postcontrast T1 images. (c) Postoperative sagittal postcontrast T1 images. (d) Postoperative axial T2 images|
Click here to view
The patient underwent C5–C7 laminectomies with intraoperative neuromonitoring. After opening the dura, a large, extremely hard, and fibrous extramedullary tumor was found closely adherent to the spinal cord [Figure 2]a. The tumor was debulked, and a biopsy was sent for frozen section. Subsequently, microdissection was performed to remove the tumor from the cord. All tumors were removed, including some areas with a poor resection plane [Figure 1]c, [Figure 1]d and [Figure 2]b. The operation was well tolerated by the patient, with no complications during the follow-up period.
|Figure 2: Intraoperative microscope view of solitary fibrous tumor. (a) Exposed view, prior to tumor resection. (b) Exposed view of the resection cavity|
Click here to view
| Histological Findings|| |
Histologically, the specimen was composed of spindle-shaped cells arranged in intersecting fascicles within an abundant collagen network. Immunohistochemical stains demonstrated that the mass was strongly, diffusely positive for CD34 and BCL-2 and negative for S100 and EMA. In addition, stain for Ki-67 revealed a low proliferation rate. Collectively, these findings supported a diagnosis of SFT.
| Discussion|| |
Spinal SFTs can be classified, according to their compartment of development, as intramedullary, intradural extramedullary, or extradural. To the authors' knowledge, there have been only three cases of cervical, intradural extramedullary SFTs, including the present case [Table 1].,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, As these lesions are rare, no large case series have been performed on spinal SFTs; however, comprehensive reviews have been conducted by Fargen et al., Bisceglia et al., and more recently Albert and Gokden. According to these studies, the majority of spinal SFTs are intradural and occur in the cervical and thoracic segments. Males and females are roughly equally affected., Fargen et al. reported that the patients included in their analysis almost universally presented with pain, sensory loss, motor weakness, urinary dysfunction, or a combination of these symptoms. Generally, SFTs are considered to be benign or indolent; however, malignant cases have been reported in the literature.,, The current consensus treatment for spinal SFTs consists of surgical resection via laminotomy or laminectomy. The extent of surgical resection has been implicated as the most important prognostic factor., Fargen et al. reported that 25% of cases exhibited recurrences, half of which underwent subtotal resection (STR). Further analysis showed that STR was associated with a 16-fold increased odds of recurrence (odds ratio 15.9, 95% confidence interval 5.5–46.1). The role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy is yet to be defined against these tumors. However, it is suggested that there is minimal benefit in benign cases and that these therapies are likely ineffective for malignant SFTs.
|Table 1: Literature review of reported cases of cervical/thoracic, intradural extramedullary solitary fibrous tumors|
Click here to view
Although gross total resection carries a good prognosis and lower risk of recurrence, these resections are not without risks. As treating these lesions requires a challenging microsurgical resection, the possibility of postoperative morbidity remains. Damage to the spinal tracts, particularly in intramedullary SFTs, is a potential complication and must be mediated through the use of neuromonitoring., In cases where there is no clear plane of resection and close adherence to the spinal cord, the use of cutting instruments and lasers is found to be useful.
The ability to distinguish SFTs from other spindle cell tumors is important for clinicians as these lesions have similar features. The differential diagnosis includes meningioma, schwannoma, and neurofibroma. A definitive diagnosis can be made through a combination of histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Histologically, SFT cells are found encircled by dense collagen networks in fascicular, storiform, herringbone, or patternless arrangements on hematoxylin and eosin staining., Positive staining for CD34, vimentin, BCL-2,,,,, and CD99 and negative staining for EMA and S-100 are hallmark findings in SFTs.
Hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) display many of the same characteristics as SFTs, sometimes making differential diagnosis a challenge. A new paradigm has gained traction among pathologists in the past decade, which views HPC as a variant within the broader spectrum of SFT. Recent evidence supports this view, including a study by Schweizer et al., where a similar NAB2-STAT6 fusion protein was found in both SFT and HPC. However, this is not universally accepted. Given the better prognosis associated with SFTs, particularly in the central nervous system, most experts retain that distinguishing the two entities remains clinically significant.,
On MRI, SFTs appear isointense on T1-weighted sequences and hypointense on T2-weighted sequences., Intraoperative appearance of SFTs can aid in distinguishing them from other, similar neoplasms. Intradural extramedullary SFTs lack involvement of the spinal roots (unlike neurinomas) and have a hard tumor consistency, little to no vascularization, and an absent or weak dural adherence (unlike meningiomas). In addition, unlike schwannomas and meningiomas, there is a firm attachment to the spinal cord and no clear arachnoidal interface. Intramedullary SFTs also have a hard consistency (unlike metastases and astrocytomas) and scarce vascularization (unlike hemangioblastomas).
| Conclusion|| |
We report a rare case of a cervical, intradural extramedullary SFT of the spinal cord. To date, with the inclusion of the case herein, there are only three similar cases reported in the literature. Thus, continual reports must be contributed to inform clinicians regarding how to identify, differentiate, classify, and treat these lesions.
Declaration of patient consent
The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Klemperer P, Rabin CB. Primary neoplasms of the pleura. A report of five cases. Arch Pathol1931;11:385-412.
Cowper SE, Kilpatrick T, Proper S, Morgan MB. Solitary fibrous tumor of the skin. Am J Dermatopathol 1999;21:213-9.
Takeshima Y, Yoneda K, Sanda N, Inai K. Solitary fibrous tumor of the prostate. Pathol Int 1997;47:713-7.
Dorfman DM, To K, Dickersin GR, Rosenberg AE, Pilch BZ. Solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit. Am J Surg Pathol 1994;18:281-7.
Challa VR, Kilpatrick SE, Ricci P, Wilson JA, Kelly DL Jr. Solitary fibrous tumor of the meninges. Clin Neuropathol 1998;17:73-8.
Safneck JR, Alguacil-García A, Dort JC, Phillips SM. Solitary fibrous tumour: Report of two new locations in the upper respiratory tract. J Laryngol Otol 1993;107:252-6.
Kottke-Marchant K, Hart WR, Broughan T. Localized fibrous tumor (localized fibrous mesothelioma) of the liver. Cancer 1989;64:1096-102.
Witkin GB, Rosai J. Solitary fibrous tumor of the upper respiratory tract. A report of six cases. Am J Surg Pathol 1991;15:842-8.
Cameselle-Teijeiro J, Varela-Duran J, Fonseca E, Villanueva JP, Sobrinho-Simoes M. Solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid. Am J Clin Pathol 1994;101:535-8.
Batsakis JG, Hybels RD, el-Naggar AK. Solitary fibrous tumor. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1993;102:74-6.
O'Connell JX, Logan PM, Beauchamp CP. Solitary fibrous tumor of the periosteum. Hum Pathol 1995;26:460-2.
Suster S, Nascimento AG, Miettinen M, Sickel JZ, Moran CA. Solitary fibrous tumors of soft tissue. A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 12 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 1995;19:1257-66.
Carneiro SS, Scheithauer BW, Nascimento AG, Hirose T, Davis DH. Solitary fibrous tumor of the meninges: A lesion distinct from fibrous meningioma. A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study. Am J Clin Pathol 1996;106:217-24.
Bisceglia M, Galliani C, Giannatempo G, Lauriola W, Bianco M, D'angelo V, et al.
Solitary fibrous tumor of the central nervous system: A 15-year literature survey of 220 cases (August 1996-July 2011). Adv Anat Pathol 2011;18:356-92.
Aftab S, Casey A, Tirabosco R, Kabir SR, Saifuddin A. Fat-forming solitary fibrous tumour (lipomatous haemangiopericytoma) of the spine: Case report and literature review. Skeletal Radiol 2010;39:1039-42.
Albert GW, Gokden M. Solitary fibrous tumors of the spine: A pediatric case report with a comprehensive review of the literature. J Neurosurg Pediatr 2017;19:339-48.
Alston SR, Francel PC, Jane JA Jr. Solitary fibrous tumor of the spinal cord. Am J Surg Pathol 1997;21:477-83.
Arantes M, Honavar M, Vaz AR, Resende M, Pereira JR. Solitary fibrous tumor of the thoracic spine. Neurochirurgie 2009;55:573-5.
Basaran R, Kaksi M, Onoz M, Balkuv E, Sav A. Intradural solitary fibrous tumor of the lumbar spine: A distinctive case report. Case Rep Neurol Med 2015;2015:708472.
Bisceglia M, Dimitri L, Giannatempo G, Carotenuto V, Bianco M, Monte V, et al.
Solitary fibrous tumor of the central nervous system: Report of an additional 5 cases with comprehensive literature review. Int J Surg Pathol 2011;19:476-86.
Biswas R, Halder A, Ramteke PP, Pandey R. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of thoracic spine with distant metastases: Second reported case and review of the literature. J Craniovertebr Junction Spine 2017;8:79-81.
Bohinski RJ, Mendel E, Aldape KD, Rhines LD. Intramedullary and extramedullary solitary fibrous tumor of the cervical spine. Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg 2004;100:358-63.
Bouyer B, Guedj N, Lonjon G, Guigui P. Recurrent solitary fibrous tumour of the thoracic spine. A case-report and literature review. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2012;98:850-3.
Brigui M, Aldea S, Bernier M, Bennis S, Mireau E, Gaillard S, et al.
Two patients with a solitary fibrous tumor of the thoracic spinal cord. J Clin Neurosci 2013;20:317-9.
Bruder M, Tews D, Mittelbronn M, Capper D, Seifert V, Marquardt G, et al.
Intramedullary solitary fibrous tumor – A benign form of hemangiopericytoma? Case report and review of the literature. World Neurosurg 2015;84:189.e7-12.
Brunori A, Cerasoli S, Donati R, Giangaspero F, Chiappetta F. Solitary fibrous tumor of the meninges: Two new cases and review of the literature. Surg Neurol 1999;51:636-40.
Ciappetta P, D'Urso PI, Cimmino A, Ingravallo G, Rossi R, Colamaria A, et al.
Intramedullary solitary fibrous tumor of dorsal spinal cord. Neuropathology 2010;30:273-8.
Cincu R, Rodriguez R, Perez A, Blanco T, Arrotegui I, Barcia C, et al.
Solitary fibrous tumor of the thoracic spine. J Neurosci Rural Pract 2010;1:118-9.
] [Full text]
Donnellan RB, Govender D, Chite SH, Landers AT. An unusual presentation of solitary fibrous tumor. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2000;25:749-51.
Endo K, Komagata M, Ikegami H, Nishiyama M, Tanaka S, Imakiire A, et al.
Dumbbell-type solitary fibrous tumor in the cervical spine. J Orthop Sci 2003;8:428-31.
Farooq Z, Badar Z, Zaccarini D, Tavernier FB, Mohamed A, Mangla R, et al.
Recurrent solitary fibrous tumor of lumbar spine with vertebral body involvement: Imaging features and differential diagnosis with report of a case. Radiol Case Rep 2016;11:450-5.
Hashimoto K, Miyamoto K, Hosoe H, Kawai G, Kikuike K, Shimokawa K, et al.
Solitary fibrous tumor in the cervical spine with destructive vertebral involvement: A case report and review of the literature. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2008;128:1111-6.
Hwang US, Kim SB, Jo DJ, Kim SM. Intramedullary solitary fibrous tumor of cervicothoracic spinal cord. J Korean Neurosurg Soc 2014;56:265-8.
Ikeda T, Wada N, Nomura M, Tamiya S, Ushijima M. A case of solitary fibrous malignant tumor with multiple metastases. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi 2011;49:913-6.
Ishii K, Nakamura M, Matsumoto M, Mukai M, Toyama Y, Chiba K, et al.
Intramedullary solitary fibrous tumor of the spinal cord. J Orthop Sci 2009;14:450-4.
Jallo GI, Roonprapunt C, Kothbauer K, Freed D, Allen J, Epstein F, et al.
Spinal solitary fibrous tumors: A series of four patients: Case report. Neurosurgery 2005;57:E195.
Jia Q, Zhou Z, Zhang D, Yang J, Liu C, Wang T, et al.
Surgical management of spinal solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma: A case series of 20 patients. Eur Spine J 2018;27:891-901.
Kakimaru H, Matsusaki M, Sanada H, Iwata A, Uchio Y. Dumbbell-type spinal solitary fibrous tumor with paraplegia. Orthopedics 2009;32:213.
Kanahara T, Hirokawa M, Shimizu M, Terayama K, Nakamura E, Hino Y, et al.
Solitary fibrous tumor of the spinal cord. Report of a case with scrape cytology. Acta Cytol 1999;43:425-8.
Kataoka H, Akiyama Y, Kubo S, Itoh H, Hamasuna R, Tajima N, et al.
Solitary fibrous tumor of the spinal nerve rootlet: Case report and literature survey. Pathol Int 1999;49:826-30.
Kawamura M, Izawa K, Hosono N, Hirano H. Solitary fibrous tumor of the spinal cord: Case report and review of the literature. Neurosurgery 2004;55:433.
Kirkbride M, Heitman K, Szallasi A. Spinal solitary fibrous tumor mimicking hemangioma. Clin Neuropathol 2011;30:149-51.
Kobayashi K, Imagama S, Ito Z, Ando K, Ukai J, Muramoto A, et al.
Recurrence of solitary fibrous tumor of the cervical spinal cord. Nagoya J Med Sci 2014;76:217-23.
Kurtkaya O, Elmaci I, Sav A, Pamir MN. Spinal solitary fibrous tumor: Seventh reported case and review of the literature. Spinal Cord 2001;39:57-60.
Lavrador JP, Oliveira E, Neto L, Pimentel J, Francisco AF, Livraghi S, et al.
Dumbbell-shaped spinal solitary fibrous tumor: Combined approach and a review of the literature. Neurochirurgie 2015;61:287-91.
Malek AM, Weller SJ, Price DL Jr., Madsen JR. Solitary fibrous tumor presenting as a symptomatic intraspinal mass: Case report. Neurosurgery 1997;40:844-7.
Mariniello G, Napoli M, Russo C, Briganti F, Giamundo A, Maiuri F, et al.
MRI features of spinal solitary fibrous tumors. A report of two cases and literature review. Neuroradiol J 2012;25:610-6.
Metellus P, Bouvier C, Guyotat J, Fuentes S, Jouvet A, Vasiljevic A, et al.
Solitary fibrous tumors of the central nervous system: Clinicopathological and therapeutic considerations of 18 cases. Neurosurgery 2007;60:715-22.
Miyashita K, Hayashi Y, Fujisawa H, Hasegawa M, Yamashita J. Recurrent intracranial solitary fibrous tumor with cerebrospinal fluid dissemination. Case report. J Neurosurg 2004;101:1045-8.
Montano N, Rigante L, Papacci F, Novello M, Lauriola L, Meglio M, et al.
Intradural extramedullary lesion of the conus medullaris. Solitary fibrous tumor. J Clin Neurosci 2013;20:715, 765.
Mordani JP, Haq IU, Singh J. Solitary fibrous tumour of the spinal cord. Neuroradiology 2000;42:679-81.
Muñoz E, Prat A, Adamo B, Peralta S, Ramón y Cajal S, Valverde C, et al.
Arare case of malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the spinal cord. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2008;33:E397-9.
Nagano A, Ohno T, Nishimoto Y, Oshima K, Shimizu K. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the lumbar spinal root mimicking schwannoma: A case report. Spine J 2014;14:e17-20.
Nakamura Y, Okajima K, Otsuka F, Ohara K. Solitary fibrous tumor attached to the cervical vertebra. Dermatol Surg 2007;33:500-4.
Obara Y, Matsumoto M, Chiba K, Yabe H, Toyama Y, Mukai M, et al.
Solitary cervical fibrous tumor. Case illustration. J Neurosurg 2003;98:111.
Ogawa T, Moriyama E, Beck H, Sonobe H. Solitary fibrous tumor of the thoracic spinal cord. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2005;45:371-4.
Ogungbo B, Prakash S, Kulkarni G, Bradey N, Marks SM, Scoones D, et al.
Cervical intra-/extramedullary solitary fibrous tumour. Br J Neurosurg 2005;19:254-7.
Oike N, Kawashima H, Ogose A, Hotta T, Hirano T, Ariizumi T, et al.
Amalignant solitary fibrous tumour arising from the first lumbar vertebra and mimicking an osteosarcoma: A case report. World J Surg Oncol 2017;15:100.
Pakasa NM, Pasquier B, Chambonnière ML, Morrison AL, Khaddage A, Perret AG, et al.
Atypical presentations of solitary fibrous tumors of the central nervous system: An analysis of unusual clinicopathological and outcome patterns in three new cases with a review of the literature. Virchows Arch 2005;447:81-6.
Piana S, Putrino I, Cavazza A, Nigrisoli E. Solitary fibrous tumor of the spinal nerve rootlet: Report of a case mimicking schwannoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2004;128:335-7.
Pizzolitto S, Falconieri G, Demaglio G. Solitary fibrous tumor of the spinal cord: A clinicopathologic study of two cases. Ann Diagn Pathol 2004;8:268-75.
Robert T, Duc C, San Millán Ruíz D, Morard M. Solitary fibrous tumour with intramedullary component: Case report and review of the literature. Neurol Neurochir Pol 2014;48:144-9.
Sebaaly A, Raffoul L, Moussa R. Solitary fibrous tumor of the lumbar spine: The great mimicker-report of the fifth case. Case Rep Orthop 2014;2014:852830.
Shin DA, Kim SH, Yoon DH, Kim TS. A dumbbell-shaped solitary fibrous tumor of the cervical spinal cord. Yonsei Med J 2008;49:167-70.
Son S, Lee SG, Jeong DH, Yoo CJ. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of tandem lesions in the skull and spine. J Korean Neurosurg Soc 2013;54:246-9.
Takenouchi T, Pannullo SC, Stieg PE, Lavi E. Solitary fibrous tumor with multiple intracranial and spinal lesions: Case report. Neurosurgery 2011;68:E1148-51.
Tomek M, Bravi I, Mendoza N, Alsafi A, Mehta A, Molinaro L, et al.
Spinal extradural solitary fibrous tumor with retiform and papillary features. Ann Diagn Pathol 2013;17:281-7.
Vorster SJ, Prayson RA, Lee JH. Solitary fibrous tumor of the thoracic spine. Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg 2000;92:217-20.
Walker CT, Amene CS, Pannell JS, Santiago-Dieppa DR, Rennert RC, Hansen LA, et al.
Hemorrhagic intramedullary solitary fibrous tumor of the conus medullaris: Case report. J Neurosurg Spine 2015;23:438-43.
Wu Y, Huang B, Liang C. Solitary fibrous tumor of filum terminale. Acta Radiol Short Rep 2012;1. pii: arsr. 2012.120005.
Yuan L, Chen X, Tian H, Chen S. Dumbbell-shaped intraspinal solitary fibrous tumor extending into the thoracic cavity. Clin Neuropathol 2014;33:91-3.
Zhang YW, Xiao Q, Zeng JH, Deng L. Solitary fibrous tumor of the lumbar spine resembling schwannoma: A case report and review of the literature. World Neurosurg 2019. pii: S1878-8750(19)30053-1.
Caroli E, Salvati M, Orlando ER, Lenzi J, Santoro A, Giangaspero F, et al.
Solitary fibrous tumors of the meninges: Report of four cases and literature review. Neurosurg Rev 2004;27:246-51.
Vassal F, Manet R, Forest F, Camdessanche JP, Péoc'h M, Nuti C, et al.
Solitary fibrous tumors of the central nervous system: Report of five cases with unusual clinicopathological and outcome patterns. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2011;153:377-84.
Sade R, Çakır M, Ogul H, Çalıkoǧlu Ç, Kantarci M. Very rare reason of spinal cord compression: Solitary fibrous tumor. Spine J 2015;15:1158-9.
Fargen KM, Opalach KJ, Wakefield D, Jacob RP, Yachnis AT, Lister JR, et al.
The central nervous system solitary fibrous tumor: A review of clinical, imaging and pathologic findings among all reported cases from 1996 to 2010. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2011;113:703-10.
Hanau CA, Miettinen M. Solitary fibrous tumor: Histological and immunohistochemical spectrum of benign and malignant variants presenting at different sites. Hum Pathol 1995;26:440-9.
Uzoaru I, Chou P, Reyes-Mugica M. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura. Pediatr Pathol 1994;14:11-8.
Yang XJ, Zheng JW, Ye WM, Wang YA, Zhu HG, Wang LZ, et al.
Malignant solitary fibrous tumors of the head and neck: A clinicopathological study of nine consecutive patients. Oral Oncol 2009;45:678-82.
Briselli M, Mark EJ, Dickersin GR. Solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura: Eight new cases and review of 360 cases in the literature. Cancer 1981;47:2678-89.
England DM, Hochholzer L, McCarthy MJ. Localized benign and malignant fibrous tumors of the pleura. A clinicopathologic review of 223 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 1989;13:640-58.
Hasegawa T, Hirose T, Seki K, Yang P, Sano T. Solitary fibrous tumor of the soft tissue. An immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study. Am J Clin Pathol 1996;106:325-31.
Chan JK. Solitary fibrous tumour – Everywhere, and a diagnosis in vogue. Histopathology 1997;31:568-76.
Tihan T, Viglione M, Rosenblum MK, Olivi A, Burger PC. Solitary fibrous tumors in the central nervous system. A clinicopathologic review of 18 cases and comparison to meningeal hemangiopericytomas. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2003;127:432-9.
Chilosi M, Facchettti F, Dei Tos AP, Lestani M, Morassi ML, Martignoni G, et al.
Bcl-2 expression in pleural and extrapleural solitary fibrous tumours. J Pathol 1997;181:362-7.
Mentzel T, Bainbridge TC, Katenkamp D. Solitary fibrous tumour: Clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural analysis of 12 cases arising in soft tissues, nasal cavity and nasopharynx, urinary bladder and prostate. Virchows Arch 1997;430:445-53.
Gengler C, Guillou L. Solitary fibrous tumour and haemangiopericytoma: Evolution of a concept. Histopathology 2006;48:63-74.
Schweizer L, Koelsche C, Sahm F, Piro RM, Capper D, Reuss DE, et al.
Meningeal hemangiopericytoma and solitary fibrous tumors carry the NAB2-STAT6 fusion and can be diagnosed by nuclear expression of STAT6 protein. Acta Neuropathol 2013;125:651-8.
Hayashi Y, Uchiyama N, Hayashi Y, Nakada M, Iwato M, Kita D, et al.
Areevaluation of the primary diagnosis of hemangiopericytoma and the clinical importance of differential diagnosis from solitary fibrous tumor of the central nervous system. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2009;111:34-8.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2]