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Widespread intra-abdominal carcinomatosis from a rhabdoid meningioma after placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt: A case report and review of the literature

1 Department of General Surgery, University Surgical Cluster, National University Health System, Singapore
2 Department of Neurosurgery, University Surgical Cluster, National University Health System, Singapore

Correspondence Address:
NG Jun Jie,
Level 8, NUHS Tower Block, 1E Kent Ridge Road
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

Intra-abdominal metastasis (IAM) of central nervous system (CNS) tumors via ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) is rare but has been previously reported (e.g., germinomas and medulloblastomas). However, there has been no previous report in the literature involving meningiomas. A case of primary rhabdoid meningioma with widespread intra-abdominal carcinomatosis after placement of a VPS in a 36-year-old man is described. The patient underwent preoperative angioembolization of the tumor, craniotomy, and surgical excision, followed by postoperative gamma knife radiosurgery. Five months later, he underwent a decompressive craniectomy and surgical excision for tumor recurrence causing raised intracranial pressure and communicating hydrocephalus, necessitating placement of a VPS. One month after placement of the VPS, the patient developed abdominal distension and confusion. He was treated for a VPS infection, and the shunt was explanted. He continued to deteriorate with high output from the peritoneal drain placed at the time of shunt explantation. An exploratory laparotomy revealed multiple diffuse peritoneal and omental nodules which had the same histopathological and immunohistochemical morphology as the primary tumor. We reviewed the current literature on IAM of primary CNS tumors via VPS, which revealed that patients belonging in the pediatric age group, of the male gender, and with a primary intracranial germinoma or medulloblastoma have a higher incidence of IAM. Majority of IAM occurred within 2 years of VPS placement, and patients most commonly present with abdominal distension and ascites. Treatment after diagnosis is varied and the prognosis is poor, with more than half of the patients dying within a year. It is vital for clinicians to maintain a high index of suspicion for similar patients, as early intervention could potentially improve patient outcomes and patient expectations managed more effectively.

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