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REVIEW ARTICLE
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The role of transcranial doppler in traumatic brain injury: A systemic review and meta-analysis


1 Department of Neurosurgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar
2 Department of Neurology, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar
3 Department of Trauma, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar

Correspondence Address:
Nida Fatima,
Department of Neurosurgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha
Qatar
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ajns.AJNS_42_19

To evaluate whether transcranial Doppler (TCD) monitoring plays a role as a prognostic indicator, by being both a diagnostic as well as a monitoring tool for increased intracranial pressure and cerebral vasospasm (VSP), in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Electronic databases and gray literature (unpublished articles) were searched under different MeSH terms from 1990 to the present. Randomized control trials, case–control studies, and prospective cohort studies on TCD in TBI (>18 years old). Clinical outcome measures included Glasgow Coma Outcome Scale (GCOS) and Extended GCOS and mortality. Data were extracted to Review Manager Software. Twenty-five articles that met the inclusion criteria were retrieved and analyzed. Ultimately, five studies were included in our meta-analysis, which revealed that patients with TBI with abnormal TCD (mean flow velocity [MFV] >120 cm/sec or MFV <35 cm/sec and Pulsatility Index >1.2) have a >3-fold higher likelihood of having poor clinical outcome in comparison to patients with TBI and normal TCD monitoring (odds ratio [OR]: 3.87; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.97–5.04; P < 0.00001). Subgroup analysis revealed that abnormal TCD has a 9-fold higher likelihood of mortality (OR: 9.96; 95% CI: 4.41–22.47; P < 0.00001). Further, subgroup analysis based on TCD findings revealed that the presence of hypoperfusion on TCD (middle cerebral artery [MCA] <35 cm/s) is associated with a three-fold higher likelihood of having poor functional outcome (OR: 3.72; 95% CI: 1.97–7.0; P < 0.0001). The presence of VSP (MCA >120 cm/s) is associated with three-fold higher likelihood of poor functional outcome (OR: 3.64; 95% CI: 1.55–8.52; P = 0.003). TCD is an evolving diagnostic tool that might play a role in determining the prognosis of patients with TBI. Further prospective study is needed to prove the role of TCD in TBI.


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