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The study of flow diversion effects on aneurysm using multiple enterprise stents and two flow diverters
Masahiro Kojima, Keiko Irie, Toshio Fukuda, Fumihito Arai, Yuichi Hirose, Makoto Negoro
October-December 2012, 7(4):159-165
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.106643  PMID:23559981
Background: Computer-based simulation is necessary to clarify the hemodynamics in brain aneurysm. Specifically for endovascular treatments, the effects of indwelling intravascular devices on blood stream need to be considered. The most recent technology used for cerebral aneurysm treatment is related to the use of flow diverters to reduce the amount of flow entering the aneurysm. To verify the differences of flow reduction, we analyzed multiple Enterprise stents and two kinds of flow diverters. Materials and Methods: In this research, we virtually modeled three kinds of commercial intracranial stents (Enterprise, Silk, and Pipeline) and mounted to fit into the vessel wall, and deployed across the neck of an IC-ophthalmic artery aneurysm. Also, we compared the differences among multiple Enterprise stents and two flow diverters in a standalone mode. Results: From the numerical results, the values of wall shear stress and pressure are reduced in proportion to the size of mesh, especially in the inflow area. However, the reduced velocity within the aneurysm sac by the multiple stents is not as significant as the flow diverters. Conclusions: This is the first study analyzing the flow alterations among multiple Enterprise stents and flow diverters. The placement of small meshed stents dramatically reduced the aneurysmal fluid movement. However, compared to the flow diverters, we did not observe the reduction of flow velocity within the aneurysm by the multiple stents.
  7,534 997 16
Levetiracetam seizure prophylaxis in craniotomy patients at high risk for postoperative seizures
Sankalp Gokhale, Shariq Ali Khan, Abhishek Agrawal, Allan H Friedman, David L McDonagh
October-December 2013, 8(4):169-173
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.125658  PMID:24550999
Background: The risk of developing immediate postoperative seizures in patients undergoing supratentorial brain tumor surgery without anti-epileptic drug (AED) prophylaxis is 15-20%. Patients who present with pre-operative seizures and patients with supratentorial meningioma or supratentorial low grade gliomas are at significantly higher risk. There is little data on the efficacy of levetiracetam as a prophylactic AED in the immediate postoperative period (within 7 days of surgery) in these patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 165 adult patients classified as higher risk for postoperative seizures who underwent brain tumor resection at Duke University Hospital between time May 2010 and December 2011. All patients had received levetiracetam monotherapy in doses of 1000-3000 mg/day in the immediate postoperative period. Results: We identified 165 patients with following tumor locations: Frontal 83 (50.3%), Temporal 37 (22.4%), Parietal 30 (18.2%), Occipital 2 (1.2%) and 13 (7.8%) with single lesions involving more than one lobe. Histology revealed: Glioma 98 (59.4%), Meningioma 57 (34.5%) and Brain Metastases 6 (3.6%). Preoperatively, 88/165 (53.3%) patients had presented with seizures. 12/165 patients (7.3%) developed clinical seizures (generalized 10, partial 2) in the immediate post-operative period. Other than somnolence in 7 patients (4.2%), no major side-effects were noted. Conclusions: The incidence of seizures was significantly lower in patients treated with levetiracetam (7.3%) when compared with the expected (15-20%) rate without AED prophylaxis based on the previous literature. Levetiracetam appears effective and safe for seizure prevention in patients undergoing brain tumor resection and who are at significantly higher risk of developing post-operative seizures. These findings warrant confirmation in a prospective randomized trial.
  2,122 5,786 10
Posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms: Anatomical variations and surgical strategies
Rohit K Singh, Sanjay Behari, Vijendra Kumar, Awadhesh K Jaiswal, Vijendra K Jain
January-March 2012, 7(1):2-11
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.95687  PMID:22639684
Context: Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms are associated with multiple anatomical variations of the parent vessel. Complexities in their surgical clipping relate to narrow corridors limited by brain-stem, petrous-occipital bones, and multiple neurovascular structures occupying the cerebellomedullary and cerebellopontine cisterns. Aims: The present study focuses on surgical considerations during clipping of saccular PICA aneurysms. Setting and Design: Tertiary care, retrospective study. Materials and Methods: In 20 patients with PICA aneurysms, CT angiogram/digital substraction angiogram was used to correlate the site and anatomical variations of aneurysms located on different segments of PICA with the approach selected, the difficulties encountered and the final outcome. Statistical Analysis: Comparison of means and percentages. Results: Aneurysms were located on PICA at: vertebral artery/basilar artery (VA/BA)-PICA (n=5); anterior medullary (n=4); lateral medullary (n=3); tonsillomedullary (n=4); and, telovelotonsillar (n=4) segments. The Hunt and Hess grade distribution was I in 15; II in 2; and, III in 3 patients (mean ictus-surgery interval: 23.5 days; range: 3-150 days). Eight patients had hydrocephalus. Anatomical variations included giant, thrombosed aneurysms; 2 PICA aneurysms proximal to an arteriovenous malformation; bilobed or multiple aneurysms; low PICA situated at the foramen magnum with a hypoplastic VA; and fenestrated PICA. The approaches included a retromastoid suboccipital craniectomy (n=9); midline suboccipital craniectomy (n=6); and far-lateral approach (n=5). At a follow-up (range 6 months-2.5 years), 13 patients had no deficits (modified Rankin score (mRS) 0); 2 were symptomatic with no significant disability (mRS1); 1 had mild disability (mRS2); 1 had moderately severe disability (mRS4); and 3 died (mRS6). Three mortalities were caused by vasospasm (2) and, rupture of unclipped second VA-BA junctional aneurysm (1). Conclusions: PICA aneurysms may present with only IV th ventricular blood without subarachnoid hemorrhage. PICA may have multiple anomalies and its aneurysms may be missed on CT angiograms. Surgical approach is influenced by VA-BA tortuosity and variations in anatomy, location of the VA-BA junction and the PICA aneurysm relative to the brain-stem, and the pattern of collateral supply. The special category of VA-PICA junctional aneurysms and its management; and, the multiple anatomical variations of PICA aneurysms, merit special surgical considerations and have been highlighted in this study.
  6,796 933 7
Volume change theory for syringomyelia: A new perspective
Survendra Kumar Rajdeo Rai, Pooja Survendra Kumar Rai
October-December 2015, 10(4):245-251
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.162680  PMID:26425150
Background: The etiopathogenesis of syringomyelia is still an enigma. The authors present a novel theory based on fluid dynamics at the craniovertebral (CV) junction to explain the genesis of syringomyelia (SM). The changes in volume of spinal canal, spinal cord, central canal and spinal subarachnoid space (SSS) in relation to the posterior fossa have been analysed, specifically during postural movements of flexion and extension. The effect of fluctuations in volume of spinal canal and its contents associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow dynamics at the CV junction have been postulated to cause the origin and propagation of the syringomyelia. The relevant literature on the subject has been reviewed and the author's theory has been discussed. Conclusion: Volume of spinal canal in flexion is always greater than that in extension. Flexion of spine causes narrowing of the ventral subarachnoid space (SAS) and widening of dorsal SAS while extension causes reverse changes leading to fluid movement in dorsal spinal SAS in flexion and ventral spinal SAS in extension. Cervical and lumbar spinal region with maximum bulk hence maximum area and volume undergo maximum deformation during postural changes. SSS CSF is the difference between the volume of spinal canal and spinal cord, varies in flexion and extension which is compensated by changes in posterior fossa (CSF) volume in normal circumstances. Blocked SAS at foramen magnum donot permit spinal SAS CSF exchange which during postural changes is compensated by cavitatory/cystic (syrinx) change at locations in cervical and lumbar spine with propensity for maximum deformation. Augmentation of posterior fossa volume by decompression helps by normalization of this CSF exchange dynamics but immobilizing the spinal movement theoretically will cease any dynamic volume changes thereby minimizing the destructive influence of the fluid exchange on the cord. Thus, this theory strengthens the rational of treating patients by either methodology.
  1,580 6,127 2
Pneumocephalus after surgical evacuation of chronic subdural hematoma: Is it a serious complication?
Zidan Ihab
April-June 2012, 7(2):66-74
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.98647  PMID:22870154
Background: Pneumocephalus is commonly encountered after surgical evacuation of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). This study was done to study the incidence, clinical presentation, and management of patients who developed pneumocephalus after surgical evacuation of CSDH. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out on consecutive 50 patients who had received surgical treatment for CSDH. All the patients included were followed-up postoperatively with regular clinical and computed tomography (CT) examinations immediately postoperatively, before discharge, and 2 months after surgery. Pneumocephalus was classified into simple and tension, based upon the clinical and radiological criteria. The neurologic grading system of Markwalder et al was used to evaluate the surgical results. Results: The immediate postoperative CT scan showed pneumocephalus in 22 patients (44%). Tension pneumocephalus was found in two patients who did not require any further surgery. There was statistically significant increase in the incidence of pneumocephalus (immediate and postoperative) in the patients aged over 60 years as well as those presenting with a midline shift more than 5 mm in their CT scan. With regard to the 22 cases of pneumocephalus, good postoperative results were found in 16 patients (73%), while bad results were found in 6 patients (27%). No statistically significant difference in the outcome between patients who had pneumocephalus after surgery and those who had not. Conclusion: Pneumocephalus after surgical evacuation of CSDH is a common finding in the immediate CT scan as well as at time of discharge. Tension pneumocephalus may not require surgical intervention and simple aspiration of air using a syringe may be sufficient.
  6,599 945 6
The success of the AJNS
Edward R Laws
July-December 2011, 6(2):55-55
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.92157  PMID:22347324
  1,192 6,078 -
Management and functional outcome of intramedullary spinal cord tumors: A prospective clinical study
Raj Kumar, Sumit Banerjee
October-December 2014, 9(4):177-181
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.146591  PMID:25685212
Aim: Intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCT) are rare neoplasms of central nervous system but require proper evaluation and management to ensure a good outcome. This study was carried out to evaluate the functional outcome of IMSCT following surgery and to decipher the factors affecting optimal outcome of these cases. Materials and Methods: A prospective clinical study was carried out at a tertiary care center from 2003 to 2012. Forty three patients with intramedullary tumors diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging were included. Their clinical details, neurological findings and demographic data were recorded. The patients were then subjected to surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy. The patients were followedup clinically and radiologically, and all parameters examined and recorded. Results: Sensory and motor impairment was present preoperatively in majority of patients (n = 39 and n = 38, 90.7% and 88.4%, respectively). Gross total excision was performed in 30 cases (69.76%). The most common histological diagnosis was ependymoma (n = 21, 48.8%). Postoperatively 32 patients (74.4%) were in McCormick functional Grade I or II improving from 13 cases (30.2%) in Grade I or II preoperatively. Fifteen of 17 patients in Medical Research Council (MRC) Grade III and 10 out of 12 patients in Grade MRC IV improved. No mortality was recorded during the entire period of follow-up (mean: 22, range: 3-96 months). Eight patients (18.6%) had recurrence till the last follow-up visit. Conclusions: Preoperative neurological grade was the most important predictor of functional outcome. Gross tumor excision was the best surgical modality to improve event free survival. High-grade tumors had higher rates of recurrence but no effect on functional outcome.
  984 6,101 -
Egypt and the neurosurgical transition in Africa
Hossam El-Husseiny
October-December 2012, 7(4):157-158
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.106640  PMID:23559980
  1,034 6,003 -
Subarachnoid hemorrhage in Kashmir: Causes, risk factors, and outcome
Abdul Rashid Bhat, Mohammed AfzalWani, Altaf R Kirmani
July-December 2011, 6(2):57-71
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.92159  PMID:22347326
Context: Kashmir, a snow bound and mountain locked valley, is populated by about 7 million ethnic and non-migratory Kashmiris who have specific dietary and social habits than rest of the world. The neurological disorders are common in Kashmiri population. Aims: To study the prevalence and outcome of spontaneous intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in Kashmir compared withother parts of the world. Settings and Design: A retrospective and hospital based study from 1982 to 2010 in the single and only Neurosurgical Centre of the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Materials and Methods: A hospital based study, in which, information concerning all Kashmiri patients was collected from the case sheets, patient files, discharge certificates, death certificates, and telephonic conversations with the help of Medical Records Department and Central Admission Register of Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Kashmir India. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance and students T-test were used at occasions. Results: Incidence of SAH in Kashmiris is about 13/100,000 persons per year. SAH comprises 31.02% of total strokes and aneurysmal ruptures are cause of 54.35% SAHs. The female suffers 1.78 times more than the male. Total mortality of 36.60% was recorded against a good recovery of 14.99%. The familial SAHs and multiple aneurysms were also common. Intra-operative finding of larger aneurysmal size than recorded on pre-operative computed tomography (CT) angiogram of same patients was noteworthy. In 493 patients of SAH, the angiography revealed 705 aneurysms. Conclusion: Spontaneous intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage, due to aneurysmal rupture, is common in Kashmir, with worst outcome. Food habits like "salt-tea twice a day", group-smoking of wet tobacco like "Jejeer", winter season, female gender, hypertension, and inhalation of"Kangri" smoke are special risk factorsof SAH, in Kashmiris. The plain CT brain and CT angiography are best diagnostic tools. The preventive measures for aneurysmal formation and rupture seems most promising management of future. The detachable endovascular aneurysmal occupying video assisted micro-camera capsules or plugs may be future treatment.
  6,228 605 3
Role of magnesium sulfate in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage management: A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials
Tsinsue Chen, Bob S Carter
January-June 2011, 6(1):26-31
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.85632  PMID:22059101
Background: There has been longstanding controversy over the use of magnesium sulfate infusion in the medical management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Several clinical trials evaluating the beneficial effects of magnesium on cerebral vasospasm and their poor outcome have been published. However, results from the majority of these studies have been inconclusive. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of magnesium on patient outcomes after aneurysmal SAH. Materials and Methods: PubMed and the Cochrane library were searched for controlled clinical trials assessing the efficacy of magnesium sulfate infusion after aneurysmal SAH. Eight studies consisting of 936 patients were included. Results: There was a decreased risk of poor outcome at 3-6 months after SAH in magnesium treatment groups when compared to placebo [0.78 (95% CI 0.66-0.93)]. Poor outcome was defined as severe disability, persistent vegetative state, or death, as measured by the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS), extended Glasgow outcome scale (GOSE) or modified Rankin scale (mRS). The risk of mortality after SAH was unaffected by magnesium treatment [RR 0.68 (95% CI 0.58-1.27)]. Conclusion: Magnesium sulfate infusion decreases risk of poor outcome after aneurysmal SAH. Current studies in the literature do not suggest a role for magnesium sulfate in mortality reduction after SAH.
  4,989 707 4
Low velocity penetrating head injury with impacted foreign bodies in situ
Rashim Kataria, Deepak Singh, Sanjeev Chopra, VD Sinha
January-June 2011, 6(1):39-44
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.85635  PMID:22059103
Penetrating head injury is a potentially life-threatening condition. Penetrating head injuries with impacted object (weapon) are rare. The mechanism of low velocity injury is different from high velocity missile injury. Impacted object (weapon) in situ poses some technical difficulties in the investigation and management of the victims, and if the anticipated problems are not managed properly, they may give rise to serious consequences. The management practice of eight patients with impacted object in situ in context of earlier reported similar cases in literature is presented.
  5,052 499 4
Frontal sinus mucocele with orbital complications: Management by varied surgical approaches
Sushil Kumar Aggarwal, Kranti Bhavana, Amit Keshri, Raj Kumar, Arun Srivastava
July-September 2012, 7(3):135-140
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.103718  PMID:23293669
A mucocele of a para-nasal sinus is an accumulation of mucoid secretion and desqua­mated epithelium within the sinus with distension of its walls and is regarded as a cyst like expansile and destructive lesion. If the cyst invades the adjacent orbit and continues to expand within the orbital cavity, the mass may mimic the behavior of many benign growths primary in the orbit. The frontal sinus is most commonly involved, whereas sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary mucoceles are rare. Floor of frontal sinus is shared with the superior orbital wall which explains the early displacement of orbit in enlarging frontal mucoceles. Frontal sinus mucoceles are prone to recurrences if not managed adequately. Here, we are evaluating different approaches used to manage various stages of frontal mucoceles which presented to us with orbital complications. Three cases of frontal sinus mucocele are discussed which presented to our OPD with different clinical symptoms and all cases were managed by different surgical approaches according to their severity. We also concluded that it is prudent to collaborate with the neurosurgeons for adequate management of such complex mucoceles by a craniotomy approach.
  4,559 694 2
Keyhole concept in cerebral aneurysm clipping and tumor removal by the supraciliary lateral supraorbital approach
Kentaro Mori
January-March 2014, 9(1):14-20
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.131059  PMID:24891885
The keyhole concept in neurosurgery is designed to minimize the craniotomy needed for the access route to deep intracranial pathologies. Such keyhole surgeries cause less trauma and can be less invasive than conventional surgical techniques. Among the various types of keyhole mini-craniotomy, supraorbital or lateral supraorbital mini-craniotomy is the standard and basic keyhole approaches. The lateral supraorbital keyhole provides adequate working space in the suprasellar to parasellar areas and planum sphenoidale area including the anterior communicating artery complex. Despite the development of neuro-endoscopic techniques and intra-operative assistant methods, the limited working angle to manipulate and observe deeply situated pathologies is a major disadvantage of the keyhole approaches. Neurosurgeons should understand that keyhole mini-craniotomy surgeries aim at "minimally invasive neurosurgery" but still carry the risks of malpractice unless we understand the advantages and disadvantages of these keyhole concepts and strategies.
  4,477 707 5
Surgical treatment of ventral and ventrolateral intradural extramedullary tumors of craniovertebral and upper cervical localization
Yuri P Zozulya, Yevheniy I Slynko, Iyad I Al-Qashqish
January-June 2011, 6(1):18-25
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.85629  PMID:22059100
Background: Surgical treatment of extramedullary craniovertebral and upper cervical tumors differs essentially, depending on the peculiarities of their localization. Materials and Methods: In the Spinal Department of the Institute of Neurosurgery during the period from 2000 to 2010, 96 patients with ventral and ventrolateral intradural extramedullary craniovertebral tumors and tumors of upper cervical localization were examined and operated. Results: The patients were distributed as follows. Tumors of the craniovertebral localization: These are neoplasms spreading in rostral direction up to the boundary of the lower third of the clivus and in caudal direction up to the upper edge body of the axis (C0-C1) - 12 patients; tumors at the C1-C2 level: 28 patients; and tumors at the C1-C2-C3 level: 56 patients. The tumors were divided into ventral (60) and ventrolateral (36). Conclusion: Therefore, the adequate choice of a surgical approach first depends on the localization of the tumor, its size and the extent to which it has spread. In most cases of extramedullary ventrolateral tumors of craniovertebral and upper cervical localization, far lateral and posterolateral approaches are the most optimum and the least traumatic. The extreme lateral approach is advisable in cases of big size ventral craniovertebral tumors.
  4,130 982 1
Spinal cord swelling with abnormal gadolinium-enhancement mimicking intramedullary tumors in cervical spondylosis patients: Three case reports and review of the literature
Toru Sasamori, Kazutoshi Hida, Shunsuke Yano, Aoyama Takeshi, Yoshinobu Iwasaki
July-December 2010, 5(2):1-9
Objective: Spinal cord swelling with abnormal gadolinium (Gd) enhancement is a rare preoperative radiological finding in patients with cervical spondylosis. In the presence of progressive myelopathy, timely surgical decompression can be curative. Case presentation: We report 3 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed spondylotic changes and intramedullary lesions in the cervical spine. We noted cervical cord swelling with high intensity on T2-weighted MRI and abnormal Gd-DTPA enhancement. Laminoplasty resulted in marked improvement of their neurological condition and postoperative MRI revealed gradual regression of the intramedullary lesions during the first year. Conclusion: We posit that the intramedullary lesions in our patients were reflective of spinal cord edema with blood-brain-barrier disturbance in the cervical cord, possibly due to minor recurrent spinal cord injury and disturbed venous circulation. Spinal cord edema is a rare condition in patients with cervical spondylosis and an accurate diagnosis and timely surgery are necessary for cure. Therefore, this unusual condition must be considered in spondylosis patients manifesting as intramedullary lesions on MRI of the cervical spinal cord. Careful evaluation of the postoperative course can be used to confirm the diagnosis and help in selecting a subsequent therapeutic strategy.
  4,573 530 -
Improving on-time start for iMRI neurosurgeries
Natascha Fherzinah Rustom Ghadiali, Darren Koh, Kuok Wei Chia, Shin Yi Quek
January-March 2013, 8(1):2-8
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.110270  PMID:23741256
Background: In the Singapore General Hospital, intraoperative MRI (iMRI) neurosurgery is a multi-disciplinary process that involves staff from multiple departments. However, a baseline analysis showed that only 10.5% of iMRI neurosurgeries start on time, resulting in unnecessary waste of resources. The project aimed to improve the percentage of on-time start iMRI neurosurgeries to 100% within nine months. Materials and Methods: Clinical Practice Improvement methodology was used. The project involves four phases: Diagnostic, in which a baseline analysis is conducted; Intervention, in which problem areas are identified; Implementation, in which potential solutions are implemented; and sustaining, in which strategies to sustain gains are discussed. Results: The percentage of on-time start cases gradually increased to 100% in eight months, and was sustained above 85% in the following five months. Conclusion: This project serves as a successful demonstration of how quality improvement can be effected in a complex, multidisciplinary workflow, which is the norm for many hospital procedures.
  4,731 278 1
Acute closed radial nerve injury
Umut Tuncel, Aydin Turan, Naci Kostakoglu
July-December 2011, 6(2):106-109
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.92175  PMID:22347334
We present a 45-year-old patient who had acute radial nerve palsy following a blunt trauma without any fracture or dislocation. He was injured by strucking in a combat three months ago. The patient has been followed by application of a long-arm plaster cast before referred to our clinic. Preoperative electromyoneurography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicated that there was a radial nerve injury on humeral groove. The British Medical Research Council (MRC) grade was 2/5 on his wrist preoperatively. The patient underwent an operation under general anesthesia. It was seen to be a second-degree nerve injury. The patient has subsequently regained full movement on his wrist and finger extension in six months. We suggest that a detailed clinical and electrodiagnostical evaluation is necessary in patients who have radial nerve injury when deciding the treatment, conservative or surgical.
  4,569 357 1
Chronic subdural hematoma
Yad R Yadav, Vijay Parihar, Hemant Namdev, Jitin Bajaj
October-December 2016, 11(4):330-342
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145102  PMID:27695533
Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is one of the most common neurosurgical conditions. There is lack of uniformity in the treatment of CSDH amongst surgeons in terms of various treatment strategies. Clinical presentation may vary from no symptoms to unconsciousness. CSDH is usually diagnosed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan is more sensitive in the diagnosis of bilateral isodense CSDH, multiple loculations, intrahematoma membranes, fresh bleeding, hemolysis, and the size of capsule. Contrast-enhanced CT or MRI could detect associated primary or metastatic dural diseases. Although definite history of trauma could be obtained in a majority of cases, some cases may be secondary to coagulation defect, intracranial hypotension, use of anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs, etc., Recurrent bleeding, increased exudates from outer membrane, and cerebrospinal fluid entrapment have been implicated in the enlargement of CSDH. Burr-hole evacuation is the treatment of choice for an uncomplicated CSDH. Most of the recent trials favor the use of drain to reduce recurrence rate. Craniotomy and twist drill craniostomy also play a role in the management. Dural biopsy should be taken, especially in recurrence and thick outer membrane. Nonsurgical management is reserved for asymptomatic or high operative risk patients. The steroids and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors may also play a role in the management. Single management strategy is not appropriate for all the cases of CSDH. Better understanding of the nature of the pathology, rational selection of an ideal treatment strategy for an individual patient, and identification of the merits and limitations of different surgical techniques could help in improving the prognosis.
  3,200 983 2
Intracranial epidermoid tumor; microneurosurgical management: An experience of 23 cases
Forhad Hossain Chowdhury, Mohammod Raziul Haque, Mainul Haque Sarker
January-March 2013, 8(1):21-28
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.110276  PMID:23741259
Objectives: An intracranial epidermoid tumor is relatively a rare tumor, accounting for approximately 0.1% of all intracranial space occupying lesions. These are also known as pearly tumor due to their pearl like appearance. In this series, the localization of the tumor, presenting age and symptoms, imaging criteria for diagnosis, surgical management strategy with completeness of excision and overall outcome were studied prospectively. Here, we report our short experience of intracranial epidermoid as a whole. Materials and Methods: Between January 2006 to December 2010, 23 cases of intracranial epidermoid were diagnosed preoperatively with almost certainty by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain in plain, contrast and other relevant studies. All of them underwent operation in Dhaka Medical College Hospital and in some Private Hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. All patients were followed-up routinely by clinical examination and neuroimaging. Average follow-up was 39 (range-71-11months) months. Patients of the series were prospectively studied. Results: Supratentorial epidermoids were 04 cases and infratemporal epidermoids were 19 cases. Clinical features and surgical strategy varies according to the location and extension of the tumors. Age range was 19-71 years (37.46 years). Common clinical features were headache, cerebellar features, seizure, vertigo, hearing impairment and features of raised intracranial pressure (ICP). Investigation was CT scan or/+ MRI of brain in all cases. Pre-operative complete excision was 20 cases, but post-operative images showed complete excision in 17 cases. Content of tumor was pearly white/white material in all cases except one, where content was putty material. Re-operation for residual/recurrent tumor was nil. Complications included pre-operative mortality one case, persisted sixth nerve palsy in one case, transient memory disturbance one case, and extra dural hematoma one case. One senior patient expired three months after the operation from spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Rest of the patients were stable and symptom/s free till last follow-up. Conclusion: In the management of such tumors, one should keep in mind that an aggressive radical surgery carrying a high morbidity and mortality and a conservative subtotal tumor excision is associated with a higher rate of recurrence, but earlier diagnosis and complete excision or near total excision of this benign tumor can cure the patient with the expectation of normal life.
  3,604 547 2
Pterional approach versus unilateral frontal approach on tuberculum sellae meningioma: Single centre experiences
Muhammad Zafrullah Arifin, Ignatius Mardjono, Roland Sidabutar, Beny Atmadja Wirjomartani, Ahmad Faried
January-March 2012, 7(1):21-24
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.95691  PMID:22639687
Introduction: Tuberculum Sellae Meningioma is one of the most challenging surgeries among neurosurgeons. Many approaches have been established in the effort of removing the tumor and some of them are supported by an advanced neurosurgical technology. In this study, we aim to compare the efficacy of the two most common approaches, the pterional and the unilateral frontal. Materials and Methods: This was a restrospective study that aimed to observe the efficacy of the two most common approaches used in our center, the pterional and the unilateral frontal, in resecting the tuberculum sellae meningioma, which was held in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung, from July 2007-July 2010. Twenty patients were enrolled with half of them operated by the pterional approach and the rest by unilateral frontal approach. We evaluated six parameters: tumor size, degree of tumor removal, surgery duration, post-operative cerebral edema, patients' outcome, and length of stay, which were evaluated to take measure of the efficacy of each procedure. Results: We found that the pterional approach gave more advantages than the unilateral frontal. Total tumor removal, especially in tumor size ≥ 3 cm was achieved in a greater number of subjects in the pterional (P<0.023). Other advantages of the pterional compared to the unilateral frontal were a shorter surgical duration (P=0.024), shorter length of stay (P=0.009) and less frequency of post-operative cerebral edema incidence (P=0.023). Conclusion: According to our facilities and conditions, it seems that the pterional approach have more advantages than the unilateral frontal approach in tuberculum sellae meningioma surgery.
  3,617 502 5
Surgical strategies and outcomes for distal anterior cerebral arteries aneurysms
Yasser Orz
January-June 2011, 6(1):13-17
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.85628  PMID:22059099
Background: Distal anterior cerebral artery (DACA) aneurysms are rare and their surgical treatment presents some unique difficulties. In this report, we present our experience of cases with DACA aneurysms. Materials and Methods: Among 80 patents with cerebral aneurysm operated on in the three-year period, 15 patients (18.75%) had DACA aneurysms, who were studied retrospectively. We analyze the specific clinical and radiological features, surgical strategies and prognostic factors affecting the surgical outcomes of these DACA aneurysms. Results: There were 10 male and 5 female patients harboring 16 DACA aneurysms. All patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage, 11 patients (73%) had intracerebral hematoma in their initial CT scan and four of them had associated intraventricular hemorrhage. Thirteen of the ruptured DACA aneurysms (86%) were small in size (less than 7 mm in diameter). Three patients (20%) had other associate aneurysms. In 14 patients (93%), a unilateral interhemispheric approach was used in their treatment, while pterional approach was used in one patient. Eleven patients (73%) had favorable outcomes and only one patient (7%) died. The follow-up data suggested that poor admission grade and initial Intracerebral hematoma (ICH) on brain scan portend an unfavorable prognosis. Conclusions: DACA aneurysms are usually small even when ruptured, they are usually associated with ICH more frequently than intracranial aneurysms in other locations. They should be aggressively treated even if very small because of their tendency to early rupture.
  3,426 568 2
Pituitary hyperplasia resulting from primary hypothyroidism
Amit Agrawal, SK Diwan
July-December 2011, 6(2):99-100
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.92171  PMID:22347332
We report an unusual case of pituitary hyperplasia secondary to primary hypothyroidism clinically masquerading pituitary apoplexy. A 22-year-old female presented with intermittent headache, easy fatigability, facial puffiness, coarseness of facial features, and hoarseness of voice for six months duration. Diplopia and diminution of vision was also observed for the last 15 days. Brain imaging findings showed pituitary enlargement, the thyroid function test were suggestive of primary hypothyroidism. Patient did well with thyroid hormone replacement therapy.
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Spinal meningeal melanocytoma
Rajeev Sen, Divya Sethi, Vandana Goyal, Amrita Duhan, Shilpi Modi
July-December 2011, 6(2):110-112
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.92176  PMID:22347335
Primary melanotic meningeal neoplasms are extremely rare lesions and benign forms are even rarer though with better prognosis than the malignant ones. We describe a 40-year-old male with a history of gradually progressive weakness of both lower limbs with normal bowel, bladder control, and an intradural mass measuring 1.5×1.0 cm on radiologic investigations. The lesion was surgically excised. Histopathologic examination revealed heavily melanin-pigmented cells, nuclei with reticulogranular chromatin and small nucleoli, moderate amount of eosinophillic cytoplasm with indistinct cell boundaries, and symplasmic appearance. A probable diagnosis of meningeal melanocytoma was made. The diagnosis was confirmed on immunohistochemical analysis which revealed strongly positive expression of HMB-45 in the tumor cells. Vimentin and S-100 were also diffusely positive while neuron specific enolase showed focal and patchy positivity; however, epithelial membrane antigen was distinctly negative.
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Progress of women in neurosurgery
Robert F Spetzler
January-June 2011, 6(1):6-12
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.85627  PMID:22059098
Despite advances in issues related to gender equity, barriers to recruiting and retaining women in neurosurgery continue to exist. At the same time, the overall projected shortage of neurosurgeons suggests that women will be vital to the long-term success of the field. Attracting women to neurosurgery can capitalize on strategies, such as mentoring, teaching leadership and negotiating skills, and job sharing or dual training tracks to name a few, that would benefit both men and women passionate about pursuing neurosurgery. Ultimately, personal and institutional accountability must be evaluated to ensure that the best and brightest candidates, regardless of gender, are recruited to neurosurgical programs to promote the health of our challenging but most satisfying profession.
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Split cord malformations: A two years experience at AIIMS
Sachin A Borkar, AK Mahapatra
April-June 2012, 7(2):56-60
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.98643  PMID:22870152
Background: Over a 2-year period, 2008-2009, a total of 53 cases of split cord malformation (SCM) were treated at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS). This study is a retrospective analysis of clinical features, radiological findings, and surgical outcome of these patients. Materials and Methods: During this period, 53 cases of SCM were treated at AIIMS. They constitute around 27% of all spinal dysraphism surgeries performed at the department of Neurosurgery, AIIMS; as 200 cases of spinal dysraphism were operated during the study period. The data was obtained from case files, operation notes, discharge summaries, and follow-up files. Observations: There were 30 cases of SCM type I and 23 cases of type II SCM. Seven patients were adult above 18 years of age. Except 7 patients, remaining 46 were symptomatic. Bony deformity of spine was recorded in 24 patients; of them, 19 had scoliosis and 4 had kyphosis. Deformity of foot was recorded in 10 patients. Thirteen patients had hypertrichosis, while four had dermal sinus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in all patients. MRI revealed syringomyelia in 14 patients; however, only one patient had associated Chiari malformation. Six patients had meningomyelocele. Intra-operative; thick filum was noticed in 10 cases and in another 9 cases, there was filum lipoma. Dermoid was encountered in 4 patients, one patient had epidermoid tumor. Site of split was thoracic in 22, followed by lumbar region in 21 patients. Only 3 patients had split in cervical spinal cord. Seven patients had two separate splits at two different levels. Two patients had posteriorly located bony spur. All patients underwent surgery. Seven patients, those who had no neurological deficits pre-op, remained unchanged post-op. Amongst the 46 patients who had preoperative neurological deficits, eight had neurological deterioration post-op; five had deterioration in motor power and three had urinary problem. Five of these patients had type Id split, 2 had type Ic split, and one had type Ib split. However, among 8 patients who deteriorated post-op, four improved to preoperative status by the time of discharge. Thus, 4/53(7%) patients had long-term deficits, all with type Id split. Follow-up data was available for 36 patients (68%) and mean follow-up period was 12 months (range 6-24 months). Follow-up MRI revealed decrease in syringomyelic cavity in 6 of the 14 patients (44%) who had syringomyelia on preoperative MRI scans. Conclusion: Overall, SCM is an uncommon condition. In all cases of progressive scoliosis, MRI must be carried out. We subjected all asymptomatic patients to surgery and none developed post-op deterioration. Overall post-op neurological deterioration was noticed in 15% patients, of which 8% had transient post-operative deterioration. The new Type I SCM subclassification system proposed by Mahapatra and Gupta is found to have a significant prognostic value in assessing post-operative neurological deterioration in patients with type I SCM.
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