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   2016| April-June  | Volume 11 | Issue 2  
    Online since March 1, 2016

 
 
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CASE REPORTS - ONLINE ONLY
Rare sequelae following ventriculoatrial shunt: Case report and review of literature
Vinu Venu Gopal, Anil Kumar Peethambaran
April-June 2016, 11(2):173-173
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.175635  PMID:27057231
Ventriculoatrial shunt (VA) is one of the oldest solutions for hydrocephalus. However over subsequent years various complication of VA shunt such as obstructions, malposition, shunt infections, cardiac complications such as endocarditis, traumatic perforation, heart failure, tricuspid regurgitation, intraatrial thrombus, and pulmonary hypertension are reported. Hence, VA shunt procedure has fallen into disrepute. Still VA shunt may be a good option in selected patients with hostile peritoneum. Newer placement strategies and monitoring methods have been put forward to reduce complication following VA shunt. In this case report, we share a rare case of endocarditis with tricuspid regurgitation following a migrated retained calcified shunt tube in the right ventricle of heart 30 years after of VA shunt that was successfully managed.
  4,194 238 1
Intracerebellar haemorrage in a haemophilia child
Satya Bhusan Senapati, Sudhansu Sekhar Mishra, Manmath Kumar Dhir, Srikanta Das
April-June 2016, 11(2):179-179
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145059  PMID:27057240
Hemophilia A is an inherited, X-linked, recessive disorder caused by deficiency of clotting factor VIII. Intracranial hemorrhage is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Use of factor replacement products and medications had improved outcome in these patients. But in developing countries many such patients are not able to afford factor replacement products. We report a case of traumatic intracerebellar hemorrage in a hemophilia child. This child presented to us as a case of sub-acute intracerebellar hemorrage, he was managed conservatively with six units of fresh frozen plasma transfusion. He improved clinically and on follow-up investigation hematoma was found to have dissolved spontaneously. Through this report we want to emphasize that those cases of hemophilia presenting with acute or sub-acute intracranial bleed, conservative approach through procoagulant transfusion and intravenous fibrinolysis inhibitors should be tried as first line of management. Before daring for surgery sufficient amount of factor replacement should be kept available.
  2,983 173 -
Nasofrontal dermoid with sinus tract upto the tip of the nose: A case report with review of the literature
Ashok Gandhi, I Vijay Sundar, Achal Sharma, RS Mittal, Sapna Gandhi
April-June 2016, 11(2):178-178
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145344  PMID:27057239
Nasofrontal dermoid with sinus tract extending to the nasal tip is rare in adults. It is unique in its embryological origin, presentation, and management. Pathogenesis involves the incomplete obliteration of the developing neuroectoderm. A sinus opening with intermittent oily discharge is characteristic. Associated intracranial extension may lead to meningitis and brain abscess. We present a case of a 21-year-old adult having a nasofrontal sinus tract with intracranial extension who presented with recurrent episodes of meningitis and discuss the physical findings with relevance to embryology, elaborating on the importance and means of addressing the intracranial as well as extracranial components for complete treatment.
  2,988 166 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Spinal arteriovenous malformations: Is surgery indicated?
Bikramjit Singh, Sanjay Behari, Awadhesh K Jaiswal, Rabi Narayan Sahu, Anant Mehrotra, B Madan Mohan, Rajendra V Phadke
April-June 2016, 11(2):134-142
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.177663  PMID:27057219
Purpose: To identify clinico-radiological distinguishing features in various types of spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVM) with an aim to define the role of surgical intervention. Materials and Methods: Hero's modified Di Chiro classification differentiated four types of spinal AVMs on digital subtraction angiogram (DSA) in 74 patients: I. Dural arteriovenous fistulae (n = 35, 47.3%); II. Glomus/intramedullary (n = 13, 17.6%); III. Juvenile/metameric (n = 4, 5.4%); and, IV. Ventral perimedullary fistula (n = 21, 28.4%). A patient with extradural AVM remained unclassified. Demographic profiles, DSA features and reason for surgical referral were recorded. Statistical comparison of discrete variables like gender, spinal cord level, presentation and outcome was made using Chi-square test; and, continuous variables like age, feeder number, duration of symptoms and number of staged embolizations by one way analysis of variance with Boneferoni post hoc comparison. Embolization alone (n = 39, 52.7%), surgery alone (n = 16, 21.6%), and combined approach (n = 4, 5.4%) were the treatments offered (15 were treated elsewhere). Results: Type I-AVM occurred in significantly older population than other types (P = 0.01). Mean duration of symptoms was 13.18 ± 12.8 months. Thoracic cord involvement predominated in type-I and III AVMs (P = 0.01). Number of feeding arteries were 1 in 59.7%; 2 in 29.0%; and, multiple in 11.3% patients, respectively. Staged embolization procedures in type-III AVM were significant (P < 0.01). Surgical referral was required due to: Vessel tortuosity/insufficient parent vessel caliber (n = 7); residual AVM (n = 4); low flow AVM (n = 3); and, multiple feeders (n = 2). Check DSA (n = 34) revealed complete AVM obliteration in 26 and minor residual lesion in eight patients. Neurological status improved in 26 and stabilized in 25 patients. Conclusions: Differentiating between Type I-IV AVMs has a significant bearing on their management. Surgical intervention should be considered as an important adjunct/alternative to therapeutic embolization.
  2,296 422 3
Exogenous lactate infusion improved neurocognitive function of patients with mild traumatic brain injury
Tatang Bisri, Billy A Utomo, Iwan Fuadi
April-June 2016, 11(2):151-159
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145375  PMID:27057222
Background: Many studies showed a better recovery of cognitive function after administration of exogenous lactate during moderate-severe traumatic brain injury. However, the study evaluating lactate effect on mild traumatic brain injury is still limited. Aims: To evaluate the effect of exogenous lactate on cognitive function in mild traumatic brain injury patients. Settings and Design: Prospective, single blind, randomized controlled study on 60 mild traumatic brain injury patients who were undergoing neurosurgery. Materials and Methods: Subjects were randomly assigned into hyperosmolar sodium lactate (HSL) group or hyperosmolar sodium chloride (HSS) group. Patients in each group received either intravenous infusion of HSL or NaCl 3% at 1.5 ml/KgBW within 15 min before neurosurgery. During the surgery, patients in both groups received maintenance infusion of NaCl 0.9% at 1.5 ml/KgBW/hour. Statistical Analysis: Cognitive function, as assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score at 24 h, 30 and 90 days post-surgery, was analyzed by Anova repeated measures test. Results: The MMSE score improvement was significantly better in HSL group than HSS group (P < 0.001). In HSL group the MMSE score improved from 16.00 (13.75-18.00) at baseline to 21.00 (18.75-22.00); 25.00 (23.75-26.00); 28.00 (27.00-29.00) at 24 h, 30, 90 days post-surgery, respectively. In contrast, in HSS group the MMSE score almost unchanged at 24 h and only slightly increased at 30 and 90 days post-surgery. Conclusions: Hyperosmolar sodium lactate infusion during mild traumatic brain injury improved cognitive function better than sodium chloride 3%.
  2,315 296 7
Outcome in 2068 patients of head injury: Experience at a level 1 trauma centre in India
Deepak Agrawal, S Ahmed, S Khan, D Gupta, S Sinha, GD Satyarthee
April-June 2016, 11(2):143-145
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145081  PMID:27057220
Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death. Evidence-based guidelines for TBI care have been widely discussed, but in-hospital treatment and outcome of these patients has been highly variable especially in developing countries like India. Objectives: To evaluate the epidemiology and outcome of patients with head injuries at a Level 1 trauma center in India. Materials and Methods: In this retro-prospective study, all patients with head injury who were admitted in the department of neurosurgery over a 15 months period (November 2007-January 2009) were included in the study. Post-resuscitation GCS was used for categorizing the severity of head injuries and outcome was assessed at discharge using GOS. All patients were managed as per laid down departmental protocols. Results: A total of 2068 patients of head injury were admitted during the study period. The mean age was 24 years (range 1-85). 71.4% were male and 28.6% were female. The most commonly involved age group was 20-40 years (43%) and the most common mode of injury was road traffic accidents (64%). 53% of the patients had severe head injury (GCS ≤ 8), 18% had moderate head injury (GCS 9 ≤ 13) and 29% had minor head injuries (GCS ≥ 14). The mean hospital stay was 14 days (range 1-62 days). Overall in-hospital mortality was 22% (454 cases). 39% died within 48 hours of injury. 2% of minor, 12% of moderate and 36% of severe head injured patients expired; Mortality was 38% in children (≤12 years). Amongst those who survived, 45% had good outcome (GOS 4 or 5), 13% were severely disabled (GOS 3) and 19% were vegetative (GOS 2). Conclusions: This is the one of the largest single center study on severe head injuries and shows enormity of the problem facing developing countries like India.
  2,212 315 4
Posterior dynamic stabilization: The interspinous spacer from treatment to prevention
Antoine Nachanakian, Antonios El Helou, Moussa Alaywan
April-June 2016, 11(2):87-93
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.177662  PMID:27057211
Introduction: Managements of lumbar stenosis evoluted over the time from decompression to dynamic stabilization preserving the motion segment passing by the rigid fixation. After long years of rigid fusion, adjacent segment disease became more and more frequent and the concept of dynamic stabilization emerged. Materials and Methods: We report our experience with posterior dynamic stabilization using an interspinous distracter (ISD). One hundred and eight patients were operated between September 2008 and January 2012 with different lumbar spine pathologies. The ages of our patients were between 45 years and 70 years, with a mean age of 55 years. With our growing experience, indication of ISD became narrowed and the interspinous spacer became an absolute tool for adjacent segment disease as a treatment as well as prophylactic with rigid stabilization. Results and Discussion: Overall clinical improvement was noted in ISD-treated patients, with considerable satisfaction in 77% of patients on average. The patient at first reported an improvement of their radicular pain with a mean reduction of 3.6/10 on visual analog scale. Post-operative walking distance progressively increased during the next 3 months. Whereas, a radiological evaluation at 3 months showed a mean of 42% improvement of the disc height. On the other hand, all patients operated with posterior dynamic stabilization (PDS) at the time of rigid stabilization showed no adjacent segment disease compared to those operated with posterior arthrodesis (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Interspinous spacer after surgical decompression for spinal stenosis by excision of Ligamentum flavum demonstrates excellent short-term and long-term results for improvement in back pain, neurogenic claudication, and patient satisfaction. It provides restoration of disc height, reduction of vertebral slip and it's a necessary tool in the management and the prevention of adjacent segment disease.
  2,054 390 1
CASE REPORTS - ONLINE ONLY
Management of unusual dysplastic gangliocytoma of the cerebellum (Lhermitte-Duclos disease) in a developing country: Case report and review of the literature
Nyoman Golden, Mahadewa G.B Tjokorda, Maliawan Sri, Wayan Niryana, Saputra Herman
April-June 2016, 11(2):170-170
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145091  PMID:27057227
Dysplastic cerebellar gangliocytoma or Lhermitte-Duclos disease (LDD) especially in children are extremely rare. In this report we add one further case to this rare entity. A three year old boy with a history of cerebellar and brain stem compression signs was presented in unconscious condition. Computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed a well defined lesion mixed with area of calcification in the right cerebellum and severe obstructive hydrocephalus. Ventricular shunting was performed followed by gross total tumor removal three days after shunting. In the follow up period, the patient showed almost total resolution of all neurological deficits. MRI has been an imaging tool to preoperatively diagnose this disease; otherwise it would be uncertain preoperative diagnosis. However, in this report we would like to emphasize that not all uncertain diagnosis of LDD leads to palliative treatment. Well demarcated lesion may account for the safe surgical resection of this disease.
  2,093 235 3
Acute subdural hematoma secondary to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis: Case report and review of literature
Hanish Bansal, Ashwani Chaudhary, Anuj Mahajan, Birinder Paul
April-June 2016, 11(2):177-177
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.175632  PMID:27057237
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a rare type of stroke primarily affecting young women. Diagnosis is generally delayed or overlooked due to a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms. Subdural hematoma secondary to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is very rare. We report a case of 40-year-old female with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis who presented to us with an acute subdural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage besides venous infarct. Management of such patients is complicated due to the rarity of the condition and contraindication for the use of anticoagulation. We conducted a thorough literature search through PubMed and could find only nine cases of spontaneous subdural hematoma secondary to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.
  2,011 306 6
Tentorial meningioma presenting as hemifacial spasm: An unusual clinical scenario
Raghavendra Nayak, Anupkumar Chaudhuri, Aniruddha Chattopadhyay, Samarendranath Ghosh
April-June 2016, 11(2):178-179
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145174  PMID:27057238
Hemifacial spasm (HFS), which is a rare clinical entity, occurs most commonly due to vascular structures at facial nerve root entry zone. Tumor as a cause of HFS is rarely described in the literature. Here, we describe an unusual case of HFS which is caused by contralateral tentorial meningioma. The pathology, etiology, and surgical treatment have been discussed.
  1,998 143 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Perioperative concerns in neurosurgical patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection
Jyotsna Agarwal, Pragati Ganjoo, Upendra Hansda, Megha U Sharma, Monica S Tandon, Daljit Singh
April-June 2016, 11(2):103-108
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145050  PMID:27057214
Background: The perioperative management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients undergoing neurosurgery is challenging due to the presence of HIV-related multi-system derangements, opportunistic infections and malignancies, history of substance abuse, and adverse effects of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), together with the inherent risks of neurosurgery. The possible adverse impact of HIV disease on the anesthetic outcome due to the associated co-morbidities, and conversely, the role of surgery and anesthesia in HIV disease progression due to their immunosuppressive effects, and also, the fear of HIV transmission among the attending medical personnel are the important perioperative concerns in such surgeries. Aim: To present our experience in the perioperative management of HIV-infected patients who underwent neurosurgery at our institute in the past 5 years and highlight the relevant perioperative issues. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of the records of HIV-infected neurosurgical patients was undertaken to determine their HIV status and ART, anesthesia and surgery details, perioperative complications, and instances of postoperative worsening of HIV disease or its transmission, if any. Results: Seven HIV infected patients with variable severity of HIV infection and systemic disease underwent neurosurgery for different indications. Their perioperative management was modified in accordance with the co-morbidities and the type of neurosurgery. There was no obvious adverse impact of the HIV disease on the anesthetic outcome, no obvious clinical evidence of post-surgery worsening of the HIV disease, and no instance of HIV transmission in our patients. Conclusion: A goodunderstanding of the HIV disease and its perioperative implications during neurosurgery helps in better patient management and enables a safe outcome.
  1,883 214 -
CASE REPORTS - ONLINE ONLY
Ossification of ligamentum flavum, a rare cause of myelopathy: First case report of a Lebanese patient
Antonios El Helou, Moussa Alaywan, Antonio Tarabay, Antoine Nachanakian
April-June 2016, 11(2):180-181
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145067  PMID:27057241
Ossification of ligamentum flavum (OLF) is a well-known pathology causing myelopathy, although it is a rare disease. The most commonly affected population is from the Far East and mainly Japanese. However, few reports and studies have shown the prevalence of the disease all over the world. We report the case of a 33-year-old man presenting with signs of progressive myelopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed Th2-Th11 OLF with severe narrowing and intramedullary hypersignal at the level Th2-Th3. This is the first Lebanese case reported in the literature. A decompressive laminectomy with flavectomy was done. This case adds to the previous reported cases on the occurrence of the disease in different populations.
  1,933 143 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Leukocytosis after routine cranial surgery: A potential marker for brain damage in intracranial surgery
Deepak Agrawal, Nilesh Kurwale, Bhawani Shankar Sharma
April-June 2016, 11(2):109-113
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145066  PMID:27057215
Aims and Objectives: Leukocytosis after intracranial surgery may create concern about possible infection, especially when associated with fever. Knowledge of the expected degree of leukocytosis after surgery would assist in the interpretation of leukocytosis. It was hypothesized that the degree of leukocytosis after intracranial surgery correlated with the extent of brain damage inflicted during the surgery. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study conducted over 6 months, consecutive patients undergoing either elective resections of brain tumors (having significant collateral brain damage) or aneurysm clipping (with minimal collateral brain damage) were studied. Total blood leukocyte count was checked daily in the morning for the first five postoperative days in both the groups. The mean of the leukocyte count ratio (postoperative leukocyte count/preoperative leukocyte count) on each day was calculated for each group. Results: There were 76 patients, 46 in the test group and 30 controls. Both groups were well matched in age, sex, duration of surgery, and intraoperative fluid balance. The mean leukocyte count ratio on POD1 in the tumor group was significantly higher (1.87) as compared to 1.1 in the aneurysm group (P = 0.001). This difference in the leukocyte count ratio between the groups was maintained on the second and third postoperative days, with decreasing level of significance after the third day. Conclusions: This study shows that intraoperative brain injury is associated with leukocytosis in the immediate postoperative period. This can assist in the interpretation of leukocytosis after intracranial surgeries and could be a quantitative marker for brain injury in patients undergoing intracranial surgery.
  1,839 230 1
Long-tunneled versus short-tunneled external ventricular drainage: Prospective experience from a developing country
Muhammad Zubair Tahir, Zain A Sobani, Muhammed Murtaza, Syed Ather Enam
April-June 2016, 11(2):114-117
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145052  PMID:27057216
Background: External ventricular drains (EVD) are commonly utilized for temporary diversion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Many neurosurgeons prefer long-tunneled EVDs in their routine practice. However, it is still unclear whether this extended tunneling helps in reducing CSF infection. Keeping this in mind, we decided to compare infection rates in long-tunneled versus short-tunneled EVDs in the setting of a developing country. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 60 patients was conducted. Consenting patients who underwent short-tunneled (Group A) or long-tunneled (Group B) EVDs between January 2008 and June 2009 were followed during the course of their inpatient care. All operational protocol was standardized during the trial. Serial samples of CSF were analyzed to detect infection. Results: Mean age of patients was 33.6 years with 32 males (53.3%). Mean duration of long-tunneled EVD was 13.4 ± 7.2 days, whereas that of short-tunneled EVD was 5.3 ± 2.7 days (P < 0.001). Three patients with long-tunneled EVD (10.0%), whereas one patient with short-tunneled EVD (3.3%) developed drain-related infections; however, this was non-significant (P = 0.301). However, patients with short-tunneled EVD got infected earlier on day 3when compared with the long-tunneled EVDs, which got infected after a mean duration of 7.3 days. The overall risk of infection for long-tunneled EVDs was 7.46 per 1,000 ventricular drainage days which was comparable to the risk of 6.33 per 1,000 ventricular drainage days seen for short-tunneled EVDs. Conclusion: Long-tunneled EVDs appear to only delay potential infections without having any effect on the actual risk of infection. Long-tunneled EVD in a resource-limited setting is technically challenging and may not yield additional benefits to the patient. However, larger and prospective studies are needed to establish the rate of infections and other complications.
  1,801 263 7
Base deficit and serum lactate concentration in patients with post traumatic convulsion
Ibrahim Afifi, Ashok Parchani, Hassan Al-Thani, Ayman El-Menyar, Raghad Alajaj, Shereen Elazzazy, Rifat Latifi
April-June 2016, 11(2):146-150
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145117  PMID:27057221
Introduction: Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and has been reported to be one of the risk factors for epileptic seizures. Abnormal blood lactate (LAC) and base deficit (BD) reflects hypoperfusion and could be used as metabolic markers to predict the outcome. The aim of this study is to assess the prognostic value of BD and LAC levels for post traumatic convulsion (PTC) in head injury patients. Materials and Methods: All head injury patients with PTC were studied for the demographics profile, mechanism of injury, initial vital signs, and injury severity score (ISS), respiratory rates, CT scan findings, and other laboratory investigations. The data were obtained from the trauma registry and medical records. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: Amongst 3082 trauma patients, 1584 were admitted to the hospital. Of them, 401 patients had head injury. PTC was observed in 5.4% (22/401) patients. Out of the 22 head injury patients, 10 were presented with the head injury alone, whereas 12 patients had other associated injuries. The average age of the patients was 25 years, comprising predominantly of male patients (77%). Neither glasgow coma scale nor ISS had correlation with BD or LAC in the study groups. The mean level of BD and LAC was not statistically different in PTC group compared to controls. However, BD was significantly higher in patients with associated injuries than the isolated head injury group. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation amongst the two groups as far as LAC levels are concerned. Conclusion: Base deficit but not lactic acid concentration was significantly higher in head injury patients with associated injuries. Early resuscitation by pre-hospital personnel and in the trauma room might have impact in minimizing the effect of post traumatic convulsion on BD and LAC.
  1,851 192 1
Combination of needle aspiration and core needle biopsy: A new technique of stereotactic biopsy
Abrar Ahad Wani, M Afzal Wani, Altaf U Ramzan, Furqan A Nizami, Nayil K Malik, S Shafiq, Rais Ahmad, Ashish Kumar, Iqbal Lone, Rumana Makhdoomi
April-June 2016, 11(2):94-97
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145188  PMID:27057212
Aim: The study aims at describing the results of using a new technique to acquire the tissue sample in stereotactic biopsy of brain lesions. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in 19 patients over a period of 5 years in which we used the new technique, i.e., Abrar and Afzal technique (AT) of obtaining tissue biopsy. It is a combination of core tissue biopsy and needle aspiration techniques. The technique was devised to acquire greater amount of tissue for pathologic study. Results: While we could give pathologic diagnosis in 18 patients out of 19 (94.7%), in one patient, the tissue sample revealed only inflammatory cells and definitive diagnosis could not be reached. There was no significant morbidity or any mortality in the series. Conclusion: Abrar and Afzal technique is a reasonably accurate technique of acquiring larger tissue sample in stereotactic brain biopsy without any additional risks. It can be done with little modification of the conventional equipment available with the stereotactic system.
  1,856 175 2
CASE REPORTS - ONLINE ONLY
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor presenting as orbito temporal lump: Case report and review of literature
Souvagya Panigrahi, Sudhansu S Mishra, Sanjib Mishra, Srikant Das
April-June 2016, 11(2):170-171
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145065  PMID:27057226
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a rare soft tissue sarcoma. The most common anatomical sites include the upper and lower extremities and trunk and less commonly the head and neck. To our knowledge, few patients with a cranial or facial MPNST have been reported. We report such a lesion in a 35-year-old woman who presented with left sided rapidly progressive proptosis and visual loss due to an orbital lump extending up to the temporal lobe. Cranial imaging showed a huge mass invading the orbital wall and temporal bone. The presumptive diagnosis was a malignant orbital tumor. Preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology of the orbital mass came to be neurofibroma. Near total resection of the tumor was done. Histopathology revealed MPNST which was subsequently confirmed on the basis of immunopositivity for S-100. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged 8 days after surgery with an advice to attend cancer institute for possible radiotherapy.
  1,680 167 -
Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor: A rare brain tumor not to be misdiagnosed
Deepti Sukheeja, Jayanti Mehta
April-June 2016, 11(2):174-174
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.175643  PMID:27057233
Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET) is a recently described, morphologically unique, and surgically curable low-grade brain tumor which is included in the latest WHO classification as neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumor. It is usually seen in children and young adults. The importance of this particular entity is that it is a surgically curable neuroepithelial neoplasm. When recognized, the need for adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy is obviated. We hereby present a case report of an 8-year-old male child who presented with intractable seizures and parieto-occipital space occupying lesion. Histologically, the tumor exhibited features of WHO grade I dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor which was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry.
  1,504 245 3
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Bilateral diabetic striatopathy
Ashlesha Satish Udare, Shilpa Sankhe, Prabath Kumar Mondel
April-June 2016, 11(2):169-169
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145105  PMID:27057225
  1,598 124 -
CASE REPORTS - ONLINE ONLY
Endoscopic excision of intraventricular neurocysticercosis blocking foramen of Monro bilaterally
Harshil Chimanlal Shah, Kapil Jain, Jaimin Kiran Shah
April-June 2016, 11(2):176-177
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.175622  PMID:27057236
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infestation of the central nervous system. NCC parasitic infestation can be misdiagnosed as hydatid cyst or intraventricular epidermoid cyst that can cause a diagnostic dilemma. A 23-year-old male patient presented with headache and vomiting for 3–4 days and giddiness for 4–5 days. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast was suggestive of a rim-enhancing lesion at the level of the foramen of Monro. Endoscopic excision of the lesion was done, and the patient had relief of a headache and vomiting immediately after the procedure. He is being followed up regularly. Intraventricular NCC occluding both foramen of Monro is a rare entity. Complete endoscopic surgical excision followed by appropriate drug therapy should be given to achieve a cure.
  1,576 135 1
Pneumorrhachis
Umit Eroglu, Fatih Yakar, Murat Zaimoglu, Ozgür Ozates, Onur Ozgural, Hasan Caglar Ugur
April-June 2016, 11(2):172-173
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.175641  PMID:27057230
The presence of air in spinal canal is called as “pneumorrhachis.” Nontraumatic, noniatrogenic spontaneous spinal air is an uncommon case. Peripheral alveoli burst due to the increased pressure in alveoli in the case of trauma, asthma, pneumothorax, or pneumomediastinum. Air pass to the mediastinum and then to retropharyngeal space and reaches to epidural space. In this paper, a 44-year-old female patient who has a spontaneous pneumorrhachis in the epidural space in the spinal canal L5-S1 lumbar level has been presented.
  1,535 171 2
Spontaneous closure of posttraumatic high-flow carotid-cavernous fistula following cerebral angiography
Ugan Singh Meena, Pankaj Gupta, Trilochan Shrivastava, Devendra Purohit
April-June 2016, 11(2):172-172
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.175636  PMID:27057229
Traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula (TCCF) is a direct communication between cavernous portion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and cavernous sinus due to tear in ICA. Most of the cases are treated by endovascular embolization. Spontaneous resolution of high-flow TCCFs is extremely rare. We report a case of posttraumatic, direct, high-flow carotid cavernous fistula (Barrow type A) that resolved spontaneously after cerebral angiography.
  1,520 182 4
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of hyperglycaemic response to intra-operative dexamethasone administration in patients undergoing elective intracranial surgery: A randomised, prospective study
Rakesh Sethi, Imtiaz A Naqash, Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa, Vikas Dutta, Altaf Umar Ramzan, Syed Amir Zahoor
April-June 2016, 11(2):98-102
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.177660  PMID:27057213
Background and Aim: The glucocorticoid dexamethasone in a bolus dose of 8-10 mg followed by quarterly dose of 4 mg is commonly used during intracranial surgery so as to reduce oedema and vascular permeability. However, the detrimental hyperglycaemic effects of dexamethasone may override its potentially beneficial effects. The present prospective, randomised study aimed at comparing the degree and magnitude of hyperglycaemia induced by prophylactic administration of dexamethasone in patients undergoing elective craniotomy. Materials and Methods: Sixty American Society of Anaesthesiologist (ASA) grade-I and II patients were randomly assigned to three groups of 20 patients each. Group-I received dexamethasone during surgery for the first time. Group-II received dexamethasone in addition to receiving it pre-operatively, whereas Group-III (control group) patients were administered normal saline as placebo. Baseline blood glucose (BG) was measured in all the three groups before induction of anaesthesia and thereafter after every hour for 4 h and then two-hourly. Besides intra- and intergroup comparison of BG, peak BG concentration was also recorded for each patient. Statistical analysis was carried out with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student's t-test and value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Baseline BG reading were higher and statistically significant in Group-II as compared with Group-I and Group-III (P < 0.05). However, peak BG levels were significantly higher in Group-I than in Group-II and III (P < 0.05). Similarly, the magnitude of change in peak BG was significantly higher in Group-I as compared to Group-II and III (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Peri-operative administration of dexamethasone during neurosurgical procedures can cause significant increase in BG concentration especially in patients who receive dexamethasone intra-operatively only.
  1,399 269 5
Correlations of polymorphisms in matrix metalloproteinase-1, -2, and -7 promoters to susceptibility to malignant gliomas
Priyanka Kawal, Anil Chandra, Rajkumar , Tapan N Dhole, Balkrishna Ojha
April-June 2016, 11(2):160-166
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145338  PMID:27057223
Background: Oligodendrogliomas are infiltrative astrocytic tumors. They constitute about 1-5% of intracranial tumors. These have been graded into benign and malignant grades. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter regions of MMP genes may influence tumor development and progression. This study was done to explore the correlations of the promoter SNPs in MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-7 genes susceptibility in development and progression of oligodendrogliomas. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the association of MMP1 (−1607A > G), MMP-2 (−1306 C/T) and MMP-7(−181A > G) gene polymorphism in oligodendrogliomas (grade I, II, III). Materials and Methods: In the present case control study, we enrolled a total of 30 cases of oligodendrogliomas (grade I to III) confirmed by histopathology and 30 healthy cases as control. Polymorphism for MMP-1 gene (−1607A > G), MMP-2 (−1306 C/T), MMP-7(−181A > G) were genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: Frequencies of MMP-1 (−1607A > G) genotypes and 2G alleles were significantly associated with the cases of oligodendrogliomas (30%) in relation to healthy controls (13%). [OR = 6.89; P = 0.02; 95%CI= (1.33-35.62)] and [OR = 2.66; P =0.01; 95% CI= (1.26-5.64)]. A significant association of MMP-2 (−1306C/T) polymorphism with oligodendroglioma (P = 0.54) was not found, suggesting that MMP-2 (−1306C/T) polymorphism is not associated with increased oligodendroglioma susceptibility. Frequencies of MMP-7(−181A > G) genotypes and 2G alleles were significantly associated with the cases of oligodendrogliomas (33.33%) in relation to healthy controls (13.33%). [OR = 5.65; P = 0.02; 95%CI= (1.26-25.36)] and [OR = 2.49; P =0.01; 95% CI= (1.17-5.27)]. Conclusions: MMP-1 (−1607 A > G), MMP-7(−181A > G) genotypes and 2G alleles were significantly associated with oligodendroglioma (grade I, II, III), but MMP-2 (−1306C/T) polymorphism is not associated with increased oligodendroglioma susceptibility.
  1,477 168 4
CASE REPORTS - ONLINE ONLY
Giant saccular distal azygos artery aneurysm: Report of a case and review of literature
Sachin Baldawa, Dattaprasanna Katikar, Sushil Marda
April-June 2016, 11(2):175-175
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.175621  PMID:27057234
An azygos anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is a rare variant of normal embryogenesis in which confluence of two A1 segments results in a single A2 segment with the absence of anterior communicating artery. The occurrence of an aneurysm at the bifurcation of azygos ACA is rare with few cases reported in the literature. We report a case of a 40-year-old lady who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage following rupture of a giant, saccular distal azygos ACA aneurysm. Bifrontal craniotomy and clipping of an aneurysm was performed. The clinical significance of azygos ACA and surgical strategies in clipping these aneurysms are discussed with a review of literature.
  1,487 148 2
Isolated third nerve palsy: A rare presentation of high grade glioma
Deepak Kumar Singh, Neha Singh, Ragini Singh
April-June 2016, 11(2):171-172
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.175645  PMID:27057228
High grade gliomas account for almost one-third of primary central nervous system neoplasm, mainly in adults with a mean age of 41 years. They usually present with symptoms of raised intracranial pressure such as headache, vomiting, and seizures. We report a case of 55-year-old male presenting with right side complete third nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intraaxial tumor of the right medial temporal lobe. The tumor was removed grossly, and the histological diagnosis was anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade 3). We discuss clinical presentation of this case along with pertinent literature.
  1,481 116 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of Technetium-99m glucoheptonate single photon emission computed tomography for brain tumor grading
Syed Shafiq Alam, Syed Junaid, Syed Mushtaq Ahmed
April-June 2016, 11(2):118-128
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.177633  PMID:27057217
Background: This study is designed to appraise the diagnostic value of technetium-99m glucoheptonate (Tc-99m GHA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in brain tumor grading. Subjects and Methods: The study was performed on 30 patients referred from the Department of Neurosurgery, who were from both urban and rural areas. Data were collected through interview, history taking, and clinical examination followed by recording the desired parameters and finally imaging. The study subjects were divided into five groups: Controls (n = 4), low-grade tumors (n = 8), high-grade tumors (n = 8), metastases (n = 5), and nonneoplastic lesions (n = 5). This division was based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification postclinico-histological diagnosis. Each of the subjects underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography/contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance and Tc-99m GHA SPECT preoperatively. All were followed up postoperatively, and histopathological reports were regarded as the gold standard for tumor grading wherever available. Results: It was found that high-grade tumors (Grades III/IV and IV/IV according to the WHO classification) showed significantly higher tumor to normal (T/N) ratios as well as Tmax/N ratios when compared with low-grade tumors (Grades I/IV and II/IV), metastases or nonneoplastic lesions. Conclusions: In summary, the results of this study suggest that in situations where a preoperative grading of tumor is required Tc-99m GHA can be used in tumor grading and its use should be encouraged. Semi-quantitative analysis using both T/N as well as Tmax/N can be used in differentiating high-grade tumors from low-grade ones.
  1,455 128 1
CASE REPORTS - ONLINE ONLY
Sylvian fissure epidermoid cyst presenting with intention tremor
Abhidha Shah, Feda Makkiyah, Atul Goel
April-June 2016, 11(2):174-175
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.175620  PMID:27057232
Epidermoid tumors are benign tumors which contain keratin, cellular debris, and cholesterol, and are lined with stratified squamous epithelium. They grow in discreet silence sustained over a multitude of years. The tumors most commonly present with headache and seizures. We report the case of a 24-year-old male with a large sylvian fissure epidermoid tumor who presented with intention tremor. The patient was operated, and a near-total excision of the tumor was performed with a resolution of the tremor.
  1,333 130 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Utility and challenges in intraoperative consultation of spinal lesions by crush smear cytology
Aparna R Dikondwar, Aarti A Dani, Saroj A Gaikwad, Shilpa P Tathe, Archana A Randale, Sanjay M Chawhan, Dinkar T Kumbhalkar
April-June 2016, 11(2):129-133
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.175629  PMID:27057218
Background: Various methods are used for intraoperative consultation of spinal lesions. Crush smear cytology is one such method that is accurate, rapid, and allows preservation of tissue for paraffin-embedded sections. Aims: To study the cytomorphology of various neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions involving and compressing the spinal cord. To evaluate accuracy and discuss diagnostic pitfalls of crush smear cytology. Materials and Methods: Over a period of 5 years (January 2008 to October 2012), a total of 57 spinal lesions were referred for intraoperative cytology. In four cases, material was inadequate for evaluation, so we analyzed 53 cases. Results: Majority of lesions were neoplastic accounting for 86.79% whereas nonneoplastic lesions constituted 13.20%. Most of the tumors were low grade (82.92%). Overall accuracy rate was 90.56% with accuracy of 91.30% and 85.71% for neoplastic and inflammatory lesions, respectively. Conclusion: Crush smear technique is a simple, reliable, easy, and rapid method for diagnosing neoplastic and inflammatory lesions involving and compressing the spinal cord. It gives an immediate idea of prognosis so that surgeon can modify the operative procedure, if necessary.
  1,265 108 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Which should be appropriate surgical treatment for subtentorial epidural empyema? Burr-hole evacuation versus decompressive craniectomy: Review of the literature with a case report
Vaner Köksal, Abdulkadir Özgür, Suat Terzi
April-June 2016, 11(2):81-86
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.175630  PMID:27057210
Subtentorial empyema is a rare intracranial complication of chronic otitis media. Moreover, if not correctly treated, it is a life-threatening infection. Epidural and subdural empyemas on subtentorial space have different effects. This difference is not mentioned in literature. If the distinction can be made, surgical treatment method will be different, and the desired surgical treatment may be less minimal invasive. A 26-year-old male patient was found to have developed epidural empyema in the subtentorial space. We performed a burr-hole evacuation in this case because there was low cerebellar edema, Also, the general condition of the patient was good, the empyema was a convex image on the lower surface of tentorium on magnetic resonance images, and when the dura mater base is reached during mastoidectomy for chronic otitis media, we were observed to drain a purulent material through the epidural space. After 10 days from surgery increased posterior fossa edema caused hydrocephalus. Therefore, ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion was performed. The patient fully recovered and was discharged after 6 weeks. Complete correction in the posterior fossa was observed by postoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Burr-hole evacuation from inside of the mastoidectomy cavity for subtentorial epidural empyema is an effective and minimal invasive surgical treatment.
  1,236 98 -
CASE REPORTS - ONLINE ONLY
Dorsal spine osteoblastoma
Pranshu Bhargava, Rahul Singh, Bharat B Garg
April-June 2016, 11(2):180-180
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.177661  PMID:27057242
Benign osteoblastoma is a rare primary neoplasm comprising less than 1% of primary bone tumors.[1] We report a case of a 20-year-old female patient presenting with progressive paraparesis over one year and back pain over the dorsal spine gradually increasing in severity over a year. Computerised tomomography (CT) of the spine revealed a well-defined 3.5 × 3.0 cm mass heterodense expansile bony lesion arising from the lamina of the D12 vertebra, having lytic and sclerotic component and causing compromise of the bony spinal canal. D12 laminectomy and total excision of the tumor was done.
  1,083 143 1
Supra-sellar tubercular abscess
Vijay P Joshi, Amit Agrawal, Anand Mudkanna, SS Rudrakshi, GP Kelkar
April-June 2016, 11(2):175-176
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.177658  PMID:27057235
Intracranial tuberculomas are less common lesions; sellar, suprasellar, or parasellar involvement is further rarer with only few case reports in the literature. We describe a case of 44-year-old female, discussing the imaging findings that were managed successfully for tubercular hypothalamic-pituitary abscesses.
  1,040 133 1
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Multiple bilateral cranial nerve schwannomas in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 2
Ribhav Pasricha, Sachin Anil Borkar, Kanwaljeet Garg, Leve Joseph, Bhawani Shankar Sharma
April-June 2016, 11(2):167-168
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.177634  PMID:27057224
  881 118 1
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