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   2016| July-September  | Volume 11 | Issue 3  
    Online since April 5, 2016

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Endoscopic management of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea
Yad Ram Yadav, Vijay Parihar, Narayanan Janakiram, Sonjay Pande, Jitin Bajaj, Hemant Namdev
July-September 2016, 11(3):183-193
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145101  
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea occurs due to communication between the intracranial subarachnoid space and the sinonasal mucosa. It could be due to trauma, raised intracranial pressure (ICP), tumors, erosive diseases, and congenital skull defects. Some leaks could be spontaneous without any specific etiology. The potential leak sites include the cribriform plate, ethmoid, sphenoid, and frontal sinus. Glucose estimation, although non-specific, is the most popular and readily available method of diagnosis. Glucose concentration of > 30 mg/dl without any blood contamination strongly suggests presence and the absence of glucose rules out CSF in the fluid. Beta-2 transferrin test confirms the diagnosis. High-resolution computed tomography and magnetic resonance cisternography are complementary to each other and are the investigation of choice. Surgical intervention is indicated, when conservative management fails to prevent risk of meningitis. Endoscopic closure has revolutionized the management of CSF rhinorrhea due to its less morbidity and better closure rate. It is usually best suited for small defects in cribriform plate, sphenoid, and ethmoid sinus. Large defects can be repaired when sufficient experience is acquired. Most frontal sinus leaks, although difficult, can be successfully closed by modified Lothrop procedure. Factors associated with increased recurrences are middle age, obese female, raised ICP, diabetes mellitus, lateral sphenoid leaks, superior and lateral extension in frontal sinus, multiple leaks, and extensive skull base defects. Appropriate treatment for raised ICP, in addition to proper repair, should be done to prevent recurrence. Long follow-up is required before leveling successful repair as recurrences may occur very late.
  4,071 625 7
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The role of subgaleal suction drain placement in chronic subdural hematoma evacuation
Yad Ram Yadav, Vijay Parihar, Ishwar D Chourasia, Jitin Bajaj, Hemant Namdev
July-September 2016, 11(3):214-218
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145096  
Introduction: There is lack of uniformity about the preferred surgical treatment, role of drain, and type of drain among various surgeons in chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). The present study is aimed to evaluate role of subgaleal drain. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of 260 patients of CSDH treated surgically. Burr-hole irrigation with and without suction drain was done in 140 and 120 patients, respectively. Out of 120 patients without suction drain 60 each were managed by single and two burr holes. Pre- and postoperative GCS was recorded. Recurrent hematomas, CSDH secondary to tumor, due to intracranial hypotension, coagulopathy, children below 18 years, and patients treated by twist drill craniostomy or craniotomy were excluded. Subgaleal closed-system drainage with low negative pressure was used. Results: Age of the patients ranged from 18 to 75 years with mean age of 57 years. There were 9, 47, 204 patients in GCS of 3-8, 9-12, and 13-15, respectively. Both the groups were comparable in terms of age, etiology, gender, and neurological status. There was no difference in the mortality in both the group. The recurrence and postoperative pneumocephalus was significantly less in suction drain group as compared to without drain group. There was no infection or any other complication related to suction drainage. Conclusion: Subgaleal closed suction drainage was safe, simple, and effective in the management of CSDH. Recurrence rate was low in the suction drain group.
  2,434 426 6
Tuberculosis of spine: An experience of 30 cases over two years
Amey P Patankar
July-September 2016, 11(3):226-231
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145085  
Objective: Tuberculosis of spine is still a very common condition in India. Here, the results of 30 cases of tuberculosis of spine treated in SSG Hospital, Vadodara, Gujarat, in the last two years, are reviewed. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients with tuberculosis of spine were treated in SSG Hospital in the last two years. They were classified into three groups, based on the GATA, GATA = Gulhane Askeri Tip Akademisi (Gulhane Military Medical Academy) classification for spinal tuberculosis, with few modifications. Their neurologic status was evaluated by the Frankel's grading. All the patients were started on four drug anti-tuberculosis medication given every alternate day as per the DOTS and RNTCP program of the Government of India for 6 months. Patients in group 1 were treated by bed rest, analgesics, and antituberculous drugs after confirmation of the diagnosis by CT-guided biopsy. Patients in group 2 were treated by surgical of USG-guided aspiration of abscesses followed by full course of antituberculous drugs. Twenty-one patients in group 3 underwent surgery. A single-stage anterior decompression and anterior fixation was done in all the cases. Results: All the nine patients in group I and 2 responded well to medical management and were cured of the disease. Out of the 21 operated patients, 19 had significant improvement in neurological status and return to their normal activities. The first operated patient died. The neurological status of one patient did not improve till 1 month after surgery and was lost to follow-up. Thus, 100% of group 1 and 2 patients were cured of the disease and 90% of group 3 patients had good neurological recovery. Conclusions: If treated timely and adequately, the outcome for tuberculosis of spine is relatively good. Anterolateral approach to the spine with decompression and fixation gives good result with respect to neurological function.
  2,447 276 2
REVIEW ARTICLES
Brainstem epidermoid cyst: An update
MR Patibandla, Vamsi Krishna Yerramneni, Vijaya S Mudumba, Nukavarapu Manisha, Gokul Chowdary Addagada
July-September 2016, 11(3):194-200
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145163  
The incidence of epidermoid tumors is between 1% and 2% of all intracranial tumors. The usual locations of epidermoid tumor are the parasellar region and cerebellopontine angle, and it is less commonly located in sylvian fissure, suprasellar region, cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres, and lateral and fourth ventricles. Epidermoid cysts located in the posterior fossa usually arise in the lateral subarachnoid cisterns, and those located in the brain stem are rare. These epidermoids contain cheesy and flaky white soft putty like contents. Epidermoid cysts are very slow growing tumors having a similar growth pattern of the epidermal cells of the skin and develop from remnants of epidermal elements during closure of the neural groove and disjunction of the surface ectoderm with neural ectoderm between the third and fifth weeks of embryonic life. We are presenting an interesting case of intrinsic brainstem epidermoid cyst containing milky white liquefied material with flakes in a 5-year-old girl. Diffusion-weighted imaging is definitive for the diagnosis. Ideal treatment of choice is removal of cystic components with complete resection of capsule. Although radical resection will prevent recurrence, in view of very thin firmly adherent capsule to brainstem, it is not always possible to do complete resection of capsule without any neurological deficits.
  2,238 301 5
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The “focus on aneurysm” principle: Classification and surgical principles of management of concurrent arterial aneurysm with arteriovenous malformation causing intracranial hemorrhage
Vikas Jha, Sanjay Behari, Awadhesh K Jaiswal, Kamlesh Singh Bhaisora, Yogesh P Shende, Rajendra V Phadke
July-September 2016, 11(3):240-254
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145340  
Context: Concurrent arterial aneurysms (AAs) occurring in 2.7-16.7% patients harboring an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) aggravate the risk of intracranial hemorrhage. Aim: We evaluate the variations of aneurysms simultaneously coexisting with AVMs. A classification-based management strategy and an abbreviated nomenclature that describes their radiological features is also proposed. Setting: Tertiary care academic institute. Statistics: Test of significance applied to determine the factors causing rebleeding in the groups of patients with concurrent AVM and aneurysm and those with only AVMs. Subjects and Methods: Sixteen patients (5 with subarachnoid hemorrhage and 11 with intracerebral/intraventricular hemorrhage; 10 with low flow [LF] and 6 with high flow [HF] AVMs) underwent radiological assessment of Spetzler Martin (SM) grading and flow status of AA + AVM. Their modified Rankin's score (mRS) at admission was compared with their follow-up (F/U) score. Results: Pre-operative mRS was 0 in 5, 2 in 6, 3 in 1, 4 in 3 and 5 in 1; and, SM grade I in 5, II in 3, III in 3, IV in 4 and V in 1 patients, respectively. AA associated AVMs were classified as: (I) Flow-related proximal (n = 2); (II) flow-related distal (n = 3); (III) intranidal (n = 5); (IV) extra-intranidal (n = 2); (V) remote major ipsilateral (n = 1); (VI) remote major contralateral (n = 1); (VII) deep perforator related (n = 1); (VIII) superficial (n = 1); and (IX) distal (n = 0). Their treatment strategy included: Flow related AA, SM I-III LF AVM: aneurysm clipping with AVM excision; nidal-extranidal AA, SM I-III LF AVM: Excision or embolization of both AA + AVM; nidal-extranidal and perforator-related AA, SM IV-V HF AVM: Only endovascular embolization or radiosurgery. Surgical decision-making for remote AA took into account their ipsilateral/contralateral filling status and vessel dominance; and, for AA associated with SM III HF AVM, it varied in each patient based on diffuseness of AVM nidus, flow across arteriovenous fistula and eloquence of cortex. Follow up (F/U) (23.29 months; range: 1.5-69 months) mRS scores were 0 in 12, 2 in 2, 3 in 1 and 6 in 1 patients, respectively. Conclusions: Patients with intracranial AVMs should be screened for concurrent AAs. Further grading, management protocols and prognostication should particularly “focus on the aneurysm.”
  2,063 325 2
CASE REPORTS (ONLINE ONLY)
Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with anaplastic features: A rare case report and review of literature with reference to current management
MR Patibandla, Madhukar Nayak, AK Purohit, Amit Kumar Thotakura, Megha Uppin, Sundaram Challa
July-September 2016, 11(3):319-319
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.144161  
Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is an uncommon tumor constitutes less than 1% of all astrocytic glial neoplasms was first reported in 1979.PXA commonly occurs in young patients and manifests itself first as seizures followed by focal neurological deficits. The role of radiotherapy or chemotherapy has not yet been established because of the relative infrequency of this disease. PXA is classified as grade II tumor in the WHO classification of tumors of the CNS. In literature 9 to 20 % PXA may undergo malignant change at recurrence or may display at the time of initial presentation. Malignant transformation is mainly associated with high mitotic activity and necrosis. The criteria for PXA with anaplastic features was five or more mitotic activity per 10 high power fields, necrosis, microvascular proliferation, marked cellular anaplasia, and high Ki-67 labeling indices. PXA with anaplastic features management is highly controversial as very sparse literature is available.We are reporting a case of PXA with anaplastic features with atypical radiology and tried to review the up to date literature regarding this rare tumor.
  2,051 230 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Our technique of midsagittal splitting laminoplasty for compressive cervical myelopathy and its short-term results
Niraj Kumar Srivastava, Sunita Singh, Shishu Pal Singh Chauhan, Nitya Nand Gopal
July-September 2016, 11(3):206-213
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145089  
Objective: The aim of this study was to discuss the technique of midsagittal splitting laminoplasty and to compare its short-term follow-up results with laminectomy in cases of compressive cervical spinal cord myelopathy. Materials and Methods: Exclusion criteria were as follows: Intramedullary compressive lesions, kyphotic cervical spine, previous spinal surgeries, and defective anterior vertebral column. Twenty patients (10 each of laminoplasty and laminectomy groups) were prospectively studied from 2005 to 2008. After clinico-radiological assessment, laminoplasty or laminectomy was performed in patients aged <50 years and >50 years, respectively. The laminoplasty was performed by splitting the excised lamina in midline up to the tip of spinous process. Follow-up was done by neurosurgical cervical spine scoring, Nurick's grading, and the final outcome was determined by Odom's criteria. Results: The mean operative time and blood loss in laminoplasty and laminectomy was 100 ± 0.87 (range 90-140 min), 80 ± 0.67 (range 75-100 min) P = 0.04; and 65 ± 0.07 (range 60-90 ml) and 68 ± 0.61 (range 65-80 ml) P = 0.09, respectively. There were no intraoperative accidents, and no postoperative neurological deterioration/recurrence of symptoms. One patient who underwent laminectomy alone developed progressive kyphosis of the spine, whereas one having rheumatoid arthritis and long symptom duration didn't improve. 85% (17/20 patients) had sustained excellent to fair outcome (improvement by at least one Nurick's grade). Conclusions: The technique used by us was simple, effective, and inexpensive. There was no minimal postoperative morbidity, although long-term results are awaited.
  2,000 245 -
Interhemispheric transcallosal transforaminal approach and its variants to colloid cyst of third ventricle: Technical issues based on a single institutional experience of 297 cases
Suresh Nair, CV Gopalakrishnan, Girish Menon, HV Easwer, Mathew Abraham
July-September 2016, 11(3):292-297
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.144185  
Context: Colloid cysts are benign intracranial lesions that usually involve the anterior third ventricle with varying appearance on imaging studies. The number of articles debating the origin of this tumor is surpassed by papers proposing the best modality available for its treatment Aim: The purpose of this study is to analyze the clinical presentation and surgical outcome of colloid cysts surgically managed over a period of thirty-two years and evaluate the technical issues based on our experience. Study Design: This is a retrospective case series study. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective case series study on 297 consecutive patients with colloid cysts who were operated. The case records of all the patients were evaluated to record the clinical symptoms and signs, imaging findings, surgical procedure, complications and follow-up data. Results: There were 178 (60%) males and 119 (40%) females, their age ranging from 9 to 66 years with a mean age of 28 years. The mean duration of symptoms was 1.8 months. Raised intracranial pressure headache was the most common initial presenting symptom followed by visual blurring, memory disturbance and drop attacks with gait unsteadiness. The tumor was an incidental imaging finding in five patients (2%). While an interhemispheric transcallosal approach was used in 275 (92.6%) patients, it was trans-cortical in 22 (7.4%). Twenty-two patients required emergency surgery in view of worsening sensorium. Postoperative complications included memory impairment, limb weakness and seizures. Despite documented complete excision of the tumor in 6 cases, 8 patients had recurrence of tumor during follow-up. Conclusion: Colloid cysts are potential life threatening but benign lesions that can be removed safely with low morbidity and mortality through the interhemispheric transcallosal approach and its variants. The possibility for recurrence warrants, close imaging follow-up after surgery. It is essential for neurosurgeons to be familiar with the different transcallosal approaches to reach the third ventricle especially for a posteriorly situated cyst and a narrow foramen of Munro.
  2,027 210 3
Surgical outcome in cystic vestibular schwannomas
Suresh Nair, Sachin S Baldawa, Chittur Viswanathan Gopalakrishnan, Girish Menon, Vazhayil Vikas, Jayanand B Sudhir
July-September 2016, 11(3):219-225
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145359  
Background: Cystic vestibular schwannomas (VS) form a rare subgroup that differs from the solid variant clinically, radiologically, and histopathologically. These tumors also vary in their surgical outcome and carry a different risk of post-operative complications. We analyzed our series of 64 patients with cystic VS and discuss the technical difficulties related to total excision of these tumors and focus on complication avoidance. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of cystic VS surgically managed over a span of 11 years. The case records were evaluated to record the clinical symptoms and signs, imaging findings, surgical procedure, complications, and follow-up data. Post-operative facial nerve palsy was analyzed with respect to tumor size and tumor type. Results: Progressive hearing impairment was the most common initial symptom (76.6%). Atypical initial symptoms were present in 15 patients (23.4%). Preoperatively, 78% patients had good facial nerve function (HB grade 1, 2) and 22% had intermediate (HB grade 3, 4) to poor (HB grade 5 and 6) function. Mean tumor size was 4.1 cm. Complete tumor removal was achieved in 53 patients (83%). The facial nerve was anatomically intact but thinned out after tumor excision in 38 patients (59.4%). Ninety percent patients had either intermediate or poor facial nerve function at follow-up. Poor facial nerve outcome was associated with giant tumors and peripherally located, thin-walled cystic tumors. Conclusion: Resection of cystic VS is complicated by peritumoral adhesions of the capsule to the nerve. Extensive manipulation of the nerve in order to dissect the tumor–nerve barrier results in worse facial nerve outcome. The outcome is worse in peripherally located, thin-walled cystic VS as compared to centrally located, thick-walled cystic tumors. Subtotal excision may be justified, especially in tumors with dense adhesion of the cyst wall to the facial nerve in order to preserve nerve integrity.
  1,929 208 7
Comparison of the frequency of psychiatric disorders among patients with chronic low back pain and control group
Elnaz Farajirad, Hadi Tohidi, Mohammad Farajirad
July-September 2016, 11(3):287-291
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.175618  
Background: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common complaints of patients referred to the clinics. Studies indicated that psychosocial factors have great impact on the patients' complaints and disability. The aim of this study was to evaluate a broad range of psychiatric disorders in patients with chronic LBP (CLBP) and compare them with those of the control group. Patients and Methods: We applied Symptom Checklist 90-R to compare 50 CLBP patients in the case group with 100 participants without it in the control group. The questionnaire measured somatization, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, hostility, interpersonal sensitivity, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. Results: Average “global severity index” was 1.10 in the case and 0.5 in the control group. Average “positive symptom total” was 45.26 in the case and 27.41 in the control group. Average “positive symptom distress index” was 2.50 in the case and 1.50 in the control group. Average scores for all test dimensions were significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.00). Conclusions: All dimensions were significantly more common in CLBP patients. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of these disorders may improve the outcome of CLBP.
  1,738 205 1
Surgical management of acromegaly: Long term functional outcome analysis and assessment of recurrent/residual disease
Deepu Banerji, Nitu K Das, Siddhiraj Sharma, Yogesh Jindal, Vijendra K Jain, Sanjay Behari
July-September 2016, 11(3):261-267
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145354  
Context: Functional growth hormone producing adenomas have long-term deleterious effects on the visual apparatus, the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems, and often predispose to malignancies. Since persistence of acromegaly affects outcome and quality of life, therapeutic interventions become mandatory. Aim: This study represents an analysis of long-term clinical and endocrinal outcome of 115 patients of acromegaly after surgical management. Setting and Design: Tertiary care retrospective study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifteen patients (male:female ratio: 1:1.09) with acromegalic features were studied. Apart from acromegalic features, their main clinical presentation also included headache, diminution of vision, field defects, ptosis, irregular menstruation, diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Six of them presented with apoplexy. Their preoperative endocrinal evaluation included basal and suppressed growth hormone (GH), prolactin and thyroid levels. On the basis of axial and coronal CT scan or multiplanar MR imaging or both, the tumors were classified according to their suprasellar and parasellar extension (Hardy's grade). Transnasal trans-sphenoidal surgery (TSS) (n = 37) and sublabial, rhinoseptal TSS (n = 72) were the preferred approaches. Six patients with significant parasellar extensions underwent trans-cranial explorations. The patients were followed up at 6 and 12 weeks and then at 6 monthly intervals. Hormonal and CT/MR evaluation were also done. Attainment of random GH value less than 2.5 µg/L, and the nadir GH value after oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) less than 1 µg/L were used as the criteria of cure. Findings: The patients were preoperatively in Hardy's tumor grade 0 (29), A (21), A+E (3), B (21), B+E (5), C (9), C+E (10), D (1) D+E (11), E (5), respectively. One hundred and one patients were available for follow-up (FU; median FU duration: 84 months; range: 6 to 132 months). Surgical cure was achieved in 73 patients following the first surgery; and, in 10 additional patients following a second intervention. No patient with a preoperative grade 0, A, B, C had a recurrence after attaining the initial remission. Recurrence after an initial cure occurred in 7 patients (overall remission rate following surgery: 75.24%). The preoperative grade of the latter patients was A+E:1, B+E:1, C+E:1, D:1, D+E:2, E:1, respectively. All these patients underwent subsequent radiotherapy (RT). The twelve patients with persistent symptoms and high GH levels following surgery underwent RT; six others with improved symptoms despite high GH levels were kept under strict observation. There was no surgical mortality. Conclusions: A high remission rate without significant morbidity could be achieved following surgical intervention in acromegalic patients. Following surgery, tumors with greater than or equal to 3 cm suprasellar height and without parasellar extension had no clinical recurrence at FU. A continuous monitoring is mandatory to pick up relapsed cases as well as those who develop delayed signs of hypopituitarism. A subset of patients who show clinical improvement following surgery but still have higher GH levels may be followed up without additional therapy unless clinical signs reappear or the serum GH levels progressively increase.
  1,672 233 1
A novel equine-derived pericardium membrane for dural repair: A preliminary, short-term investigation
Roberto Centonze, Emiliano Agostini, Samantha Massaccesi, Stefano Toninelli, Letterio Morabito
July-September 2016, 11(3):201-205
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.179645  
Background: A large variety of biological and artificial materials are employed in dural repair, each of them with major limitations. Autologous grafts have limited availability and require an additional incision and surgical time. Cadaveric preparations and heterologous materials entail the risk of iatrogenic transmission of prions, whereas synthetic substitutes have been reported to cause inflammatory reactions and graft rejection. An equine-derived pericardium membrane has been developed (Heart®, Bioteck, Vicenza, Italy) with mechanical and safety-related features that could make it suitable for neurosurgical application. Aims: This preliminary study aimed to evaluate the short-term safety and efficacy of the Heart® membrane in dural repair procedures following meningioma surgeries. Subjects and Methods: Medical records of patients who were surgically treated for an intracranial meningioma and underwent duraplasty with the Heart® membrane were reviewed retrospectively. The occurrence of any graft-related complications such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage, postoperative hematoma, wound infection, meningitis, and neurological symptoms was analyzed. Results: Eight patients were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. A watertight closure was achieved in all of them. Postoperatively, no patients exhibited CSF leak, cerebral contusion, hemorrhage, or wound infection. The 1-month radiological follow-up revealed no evidence of pseudomeningocele, wound breakdown, or meningitis. Neurologic complications were observed in three patients but not directly imputable to the dural substitute or its application. Conclusions: In all the patients, the pericardium membrane enabled achievement of a watertight dural closure without graft-related adverse events. Further investigations should be performed to assess medium- and long-term clinical outcomes in a larger set of patients.
  1,564 266 4
CASE REPORTS (ONLINE ONLY)
Aneurysm of azygos anterior cerebral artery: A report of two cases
Rajesh Kumar Ghanta, Murthy V.S.N Kesanakurthy, Varaprasad N Vemuri
July-September 2016, 11(3):312-312
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145363  
Aneurysms of azygos anterior cerebral artery (ACA) are rare with very few cases reported in medical literature. We report here two cases of aneurysm of azygos ACA among 105 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. The two aneurysms were successfully clipped by using the bifrontal basal interhemispheric approach.
  1,655 147 1
Tiger hide appearance: Impaction and prolapse of brain parenchyma through burr holes after evacuation of bilateral chronic subdural hematoma: A rare case report
Manish Jaiswal, Ashok Gandhi, Devendra Purohit, RS Mittal
July-September 2016, 11(3):321-321
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145094  
Burr hole evacuation of chronic subdural hematoma (SDH) with or without drainage system is the most common surgical method among various techniques. There are various complications of burr hole drainage evacuation of chronic SDH, but there is no case report regarding impaction and prolapse of brain parenchyma through burr hole as a complication. Herewith, we are reporting a case of bilateral chronic SDH with prolapse of brain parenchyma through burr holes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain showed a characteristic look and we named it “Tiger hide appearance”. We failed to find such characteristic appearance in MRI brain on reviewing the available literature.
  1,622 153 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Primary intracranial lymphomas
Shagufta T Mufti, Saleh S Baeesa, Jaudah A Al-Maghrabi
July-September 2016, 11(3):232-239
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145082  
Background: Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL), a rare form of aggressive extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), has increased in incidence during the last three decades and occurs in both immune compromised and immune competent hosts. It has an overall poor prognosis. Objective: This study attempts to further delineate the clinico-pathological, immunohistochemical and radiological profile of PCNSL at Jeddah to King Faisal Hospital and Research Center. Methods: Computerized search through the archives of King Faisal Hospital and Research Centre between July 2000- December 2012 identified 15 patients with pathologically confirmed PCNSL.These were analyzed retrospectively. Their clinico-pathological, immunohistochemical and radiological data were analyzed. Results: Of the 15 PCNSL patients, 8 (53.3%) were females and 7 (46.6%) were males. There was female predilection especially in the age group of 40-59 years. Mean age at diagnosis for all patients was 50.4 years. There was no patient in the pediatric age group. The most common location in the brain was the frontal region in 7 patients (46.6%), 7 (46.6%) had multiple intracranial masses; all 15 (100%) were Non Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas, among which 13 (86.6%) were diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. All 15 (100%) cases showed diffuse and strong positivity for CD 45, and CD 20. Fourteen patients were immune competent while one was immune compromised. Conclusions: PCNSL often occurs in middle-aged and aged patients. There is female predilection especially in the middle age. Frontal region is the most common location with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma being the predominant subtype.
  1,563 209 -
CASE REPORTS (ONLINE ONLY)
Subdural hydatid cyst presenting as recurrent subdural hygroma
Abrar A Wani, Altaf U Ramzan, Furqan A Nizami, Nayil K Malik, Bashir Dar, Ashish Kumar
July-September 2016, 11(3):322-322
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145336  
Intracranial hydatid disease is an uncommon entity that usually is parenchymal in location. Presence of hydatid cyst in subdural location is being reported for the first time in the literature. A 13-year-old female child with the diagnosis of hydatid disease of brain was operated. She was advised to take albendazole which she did not take. In postoperative period she developed recurrent subdural hygroma for which multiple surgical interventions were done and finally cause of recurrent subdural hygroma was found to be hydatid cyst in the subdural space. The patient had initially undergone craniotomy for the excision of hydatid cyst. Later on she developed subdural hygroma for which the burr hole drainage was done twice. At time of third recurrence subduro-peritoneal (SDP) shunt was done. When she had recurrence again along with hydrocephalus, than VP shunt and revision of the SDP shunt was planned. While doing revision of SDP shunt, hydatid cyst was seen emerging from the burr hole site. A craniotomy was done to remove the hydatid cyst from the subdural space. Since then there has been no recurrent collection. Complete surgical excision is the best treatment modality to treat hydatid cyst of brain. Accidental spillage of the contents can have lead to recurrence, so every effort must be taken to prevent spillage of contents. Postoperatively all the patients must be put on antihelminthics.
  1,580 157 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Usefulness of navigated O-arm® in a teaching center for spinal trauma
Deepak Agrawal
July-September 2016, 11(3):298-302
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.144179  
Background: There is a relatively high incidence of screw misplacement during spinal instrumentation due to distortion of normal anatomy following spinal trauma. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate and share the initial experience with the use of neuro-navigated 3D O-arm® (Medtronic, USA) as compared to traditional 2D fluoroscopy in atrauma center in India. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, consecutive patients of spinal injury who underwent screw fixation under O-arm guidance over nine-month period (July 2010 till March 2011) were evaluated for accuracy of screw placement. An equal number of consecutive patients prior to March 2011 who underwent screw fixation in 2D fluoroscopy were included for comparison. Patient demographics and radiology were reviewed and spinal injury was assessed using the ASIA grading in both the groups. Screw placement was assessed by postoperative CT scans of the relevant spine and accuracy of screw placement and breach of the medial or lateral cortex of the pedicle were recorded for each case. Results: In the O-arm group, there were 57 patients in whom 210 screws were inserted. None of the patients had screw mal-placement. In 2D fluoroscopy group, 57 patients had 268 screws insertions. 10 (3.73%) screws were found to be malpositioned in the postoperative CT scans (8 in thoracic spine and 2 in odontoid fractures). The malposition rate was highly significant in 2D fluoroscopy thoracolumbar (P = 0.0015) subgroup. One patient had neurological deterioration and three patients required repositioning of the screws. Conclusion: In a teaching center with multiple surgeons, the O-armâ imaging ensures accurate placement of screws as compared to traditional 2D fluoroscopy.
  1,547 169 1
CASE REPORTS (ONLINE ONLY)
Acute obstructive hydrocephalus complicating decompression surgery of the craniovertebral junction
Junichi Ohya, Hirotaka Chikuda, Hirofumi Nakatomi, Ryuji Sakamoto, Nobuhito Saito, Sakae Tanaka
July-September 2016, 11(3):311-312
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.179643  
Obstructive hydrocephalus has been described as a rare complication following foramen magnum decompression for Chiari malformation. However, there are few reports of obstructive hydrocephalus after spinal surgery for other pathologies of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ). The authors herein report a 52-year-old female with achondroplasia presenting with an 8-month history of myelopathy due to spinal cord compression at CVJ. She underwent resection of the C1 posterior arch and part of the edge of the occipital bone. A computed tomography (CT) scan obtained 1-week after the surgery revealed bilateral infratentorial fluid collection. The patient was first managed conservatively; however, on the 17th day, her consciousness level showed sudden deterioration. Emergency CT demonstrated marked hydrocephalus due to obstruction of the cerebral aqueduct. Acute obstructive hydrocephalus can occur late after decompression surgery at the CVJ, and thus should be included in the differential diagnosis of a deteriorating mental status.
  1,537 146 -
Esthesioneuroblastoma with intracranial extension: A non-surgical approach
Sarah Boby Thomas, Deepak Balasubramaniam, KR Hiran, M Dinesh, K Pavithran
July-September 2016, 11(3):313-313
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145087  
Esthesioneuroblastoma is a rare tumor arising from the olfactory mucosa of upper respiratory tract. The primary modality of treatment has been surgery with craniofacial resection followed by post-operative radiotherapy. There are only a few reported cases of non-surgical approaches. We report a case of esthesioneuroblastoma with intracranial extension treated with Vincristine, Adriamycin, Cyclophosphamide, Ifosfamide, Etoposide protocol followed by radiation with 5 years of follow-up. This is the first reported case using this chemotherapy schedule.
  1,544 121 2
Malignant metastatic carcinoid presenting as brain tumor
I Vijay Sundar, SK Jain, Dhrubajyoti Kurmi, Rakesh Sharma, Sanjeev Chopra, Shashi Singhvi
July-September 2016, 11(3):314-314
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145319  
Carcinoid tumors are rarely known to metastasise to the brain. It is even more rare for such patients to present with symptoms related to metastases as the initial and only symptom. We present a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with hemiparesis and imaging features suggestive of brain tumor. He underwent surgery and the histopathology revealed metastatic malignant lesion of neuroendocrine origin. A subsequent work up for the primary was negative. Patient was treated with adjuvant radiotherapy. We present this case to highlight the pathophysiological features, workup and treatment options of this rare disease and discuss the methods of differentiating it from more common brain tumors.
  1,531 97 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Trans aqueductal, third ventricle – Cervical subarachnoid stenting: An adjuvant cerebro spinal fluid diversion procedure in midline posterior fossa tumors with hydrocephalus: The technical note and case series
Ramesh Teegala
July-September 2016, 11(3):268-272
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145369  
Background: Persistent or progressive hydrocephalus is one of the complex problems of posterior fossa tumors associated with hydrocephalus. The author evaluated the effectiveness of single-stage tumor decompression associated with a stent technique (trans aqueductal third ventricle – Cervical subarachnoid stenting) as an adjuvant cerebro spinal fluid (CSF) diversion procedure in controlling the midline posterior fossa tumors with hydrocephalus. Materials and Methods: Prospective clinical case series of 15 patients was evaluated from July 2006 to April 2012. Fifteen clinicoradiological diagnosed cases of midline posterior fossa tumors with hydrocephalus were included in this study. All the tumors were approached through the cerebello medullary (telo velo tonsilar) fissure technique. Following the excision of the posterior fossa tumor, a sizable stent was placed across the aqueduct from the third ventricle to the cervical subarachnoid space. Results: There were nine male and six female patients with an average age of 23 years. Complete tumor excision could be achieved in 12 patients and subtotal excision with clearance of aqueduct in remaining three patients. Hydrocephalus was controlled effectively in all the patients. There were no stent-related complications. Conclusions: This study showed the reliability of single-stage tumor excision followed by placement of aqueductal stent. The success rate of this technique is comparable to those of conventional CSF diversion procedures. This is a simple, safe, and effective procedure for the management of persistent and or progressive hydrocephalus. This technique may be very useful in situations where the patient's follow-up is compromised and the patients who are from a poor economic background. Long-term results need further evaluation to assess the overall functioning of this stent technique.
  1,512 116 -
CASE REPORTS (ONLINE ONLY)
Parietal pilomyxoid astrocytoma with recurrence in 10 months: A case report and review of literature
Mohana Rao Patibandla, Amit K Thotakura, Megha Uppin, Sundaram Challa, Gokul Chowdary Addagada, Manisha Nukavarapu
July-September 2016, 11(3):323-323
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145158  
Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a new entity described in WHO 2007 classification of brain tumors. Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) and PMA share many histopathological features with a few differences in histopathology and behavior of the tumor. This tumor is commonly located in the hypothalamic chiasmatic region. PMA behaves more aggressively than PA, with shorter progression-free survival as well as a higher rate of recurrence and CNS dissemination. We describe a case of PMA in a 10-year-old male involving left parietal lobe presenting with raised ICP features along with the follow-up. Patient was symptom free after 7 months of postoperative and 5½ months of post-radiation. The unusual site and atypical Magnetic resonance imaging features are distinctive in this case report.
  1,501 122 1
Intradural teratoma in a neonate with meningomyelocele
Anand Pandey, Saroj Chooramani Gopal, Vijayendra Kumar, Ajay Narayan Gangopadhyay, Shiv Prasad Sharma
July-September 2016, 11(3):323-324
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145111  
Meningomyelocele is a common congenital problem. The teratoma is a neoplasm composed of tissues foreign to the part in which they arise. An intradural teratoma within a meningomyelocele is a very rare association. We report a case of intradural teratoma with a brief review of the relevant literature.
  1,513 98 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Indocyanine green as an adjunct for resection of insular gliomas
Abhidha Shah, Vithal Rangarajan, Amol Kaswa, Sonal Jain, Atul Goel
July-September 2016, 11(3):276-281
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.175626  
Objective: Many controversies exist regarding the extent of resection for insular gliomas and the timing of resection. Several techniques and adjuncts are used to maximize safety during resection of these tumors. We describe the use of indocyanine green (ICG) to identify the branches of the middle cerebral artery and discuss its utility to increase safety for resection for insular gliomas. Materials and Methods: Five patients with insular gliomas were surgically treated by the authors from June 2013 to June 2014. The patients presented with complaints of either a headache or recurring episodes of convulsions. All the patients were operated with the aid of neuronavigation and tractography. The long perforating branches of the middle cerebral artery course through the insula and pass onward to supply the corona radiata. It is essential to preserve these vessels to prevent postoperative neurological deficits. ICG (Aurogreen) was used to identify and preserve the long perforating arteries of the middle cerebral artery. Results: ICG dye correctly identified the long perforating branches of the middle cerebral artery and easily distinguished these vessels from the short perforating branches. All the branches of the middle cerebral artery that coursed through the tumor and had an onward course were preserved in all the patients. Only one patient developed a transient right sided hemiparesis that had improved at follow-up. Conclusions: Surgery for insular gliomas is challenging due to its location adjacent to eloquent areas, important white fiber tracts and the course of the middle cerebral artery within it. ICG is useful to identify and preserve the long perforating branches of the middle cerebral artery that course through the tumor and traverse onward to supply the corona radiata.
  1,442 159 5
CASE REPORTS (ONLINE ONLY)
Non psammomatous melanocytic schwannoma presenting as a subcutaneous nodule: A rare presentation of a rare lesion
Harveen Kaur Gulati, Avinash R Joshi, Mani Anand, SD Deshmukh
July-September 2016, 11(3):317-318
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.148789  
Melanocytic schwannoma (MS) is an extremely rare soft tissue tumor accounting for less than 1% of all primitive nerve sheath tumors, with a predilection for spinal nerve involvement. To date, only 20 cases of cutaneous/subcutaneous MS have been described in literature.Here, we describe a case of MS presenting as a subcutaneous nodule in a 22-year-old male in right thigh. On examination, the nodule measured 2.5 x 2.0 x 1.5 cm with overlying skin showing a bluish hue and an ulcer. With a preoperative diagnosis of hemangioma, the patient was taken up for wide local excision and was diagnosed as a case of non psammomatous melanocytic schwannoma based on clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical studies. Immunohistochemistry revealed positivity with S-100, HMB-45, and Melan A with pericellular Laminin positivity. Carney's syndrome was ruled out. MS needs to be differentiated from other pigmented lesions like pigmented neurofibroma, Bednar tumor, cellular blue neavus, and especially malignant melanoma, which has an obvious ominous prognosis. Since MS can show unpredictable behavior especially in absence of overt malignant features, a long term follow up with or without radiotherapy is recommended.
  1,496 97 2
Supratentorial metastasis of medulloblastoma in adults
Sushil Kumar, Amit Handa, Deepak K Jha, Ajay Choudhary
July-September 2016, 11(3):320-320
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.149993  
Two adults, 31 and 20 years of age, developed supratentorial metastasis 3½ years and 11 months, respectively, after gross total removal of their posterior fossa medulloblastoma. The first case developed spinal metastasis as well. Both had undergone craniospinal irradiation. Case 1 underwent laminectomy and case 2 underwent craniotomy because their presenting symptoms required so.
  1,478 110 1
Transorbital penetrating brain injury by a wooden stick: A neuro-ophthalmologic emergency
Sanjay Kumar Behera, Souvagya Panigrahi, Sudhansu Sekhar Mishra, Satya Bhusan Senapati
July-September 2016, 11(3):321-322
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145092  
Accidental penetrating brain injury through transorbital route is an unusual occurrence in emergency practice of civilian cases. At time, it could be potentially life threatening. We report an interesting case of transorbital penetrating brain injury with a wooden stick in a 44-year-old male epileptic patient. The stick was removed successfully through transorbital exploration, without any neurovascular complications. The pertinent literature is reviewed and emergent management of such cases is discussed.
  1,489 90 2
Medullomyoblastoma: A rare case in an unusual location in an atypical age group
Sumit Bansal, Sachin A Borkar, Ashish Suri, Mehar C Sharma, Ashok K Mahapatra
July-September 2016, 11(3):315-316
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.144167  
Medullomyoblastoma is a variant of medulloblastoma with an aggressive course. It is typically seen in children less than 10 years of age and usually arises from the cerebellar vermis. Authors report an unusual case of medullomyoblastoma arising from the right middle cerebellar peduncle in an adult patient and pertinent literature is reviewed regarding this uncommon entity.
  1,461 110 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Morphometric analysis of posterior fossa in Indian CP angle acoustic schwannoma patients
Mohana Rao Patibandla, Manas K Panigrahi, Paniraj L Gurram, Amit Kumar Thotakura, Dilip Kulkarni
July-September 2016, 11(3):255-260
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145308  
Aim: To study the morphometry of posterior fossa in Indian CP angle schwannoma patients in order to know its influence on the extent of excision of the CP angle acoustic schwannomas. Materials and Methods: One hundred cases of cerebellopontine angle schwannomas treated surgically by the senior author and 20 controls between January 2006 and June 2011 were consecutively investigated with computed tomography (CT) using the high-resolution CT bone windows before surgery. Evaluation of anatomic parameters of the petrous bone and posterior fossa cavity were done in all patients and controls. Data were entered in Excel software and were analyzed using NCSS software. All possible regression analysis was done to select the important variables to be included in the model to predict the excision of tumor with these variables. A prediction model was developed defining the binary outcome as total excision or subtotal excision as dependent variable and the morphometric data and grading of tumor as independent variables. Results: Interpetrous distance (IP) is the distance between the two petrous apices. Sigmoid distance (IS) distance is the distance between the two sigmoid points. Sigmoid point is the point at which the scalloped impression of the sigmoid sinus straightens to join the occipital bone posteriorly. SAG is the distance between the mid IP point and the mid-point on the inner wall of the occipital bone. The PM angle was 47.8±4.14 degrees (38-58), the PA angle was 42.68±4.47 degrees (34-53), the IP distance was 2.07±0.13 cm (1.5-2.8), the sagittal diameter of posterior fossa was 6.22±0.73 cm (5.1-9.8) and the intersigmoid distance was 9.45±0.73 cm (7.4-11). There was no significant gender difference in the posterior fossa morphometry between patients and controls. Inter-sigmoid distance and the petrous-apex angle were more in the Indians when compared to the European population mentioned in the Mathies and Samii study. Conclusions: The posterior fossa morphological parameters of the Indian and European population differ significantly. Inter-sigmoid distance and the petrous-apex angle were more in the Indians when compared to the Europeans. There is no significant gender difference in the morphometry of the Indians. There is no significant difference between the patients and the control groups. In our study the adhesions with surrounding structures along with the posterior fossa morphometry significantly affect the extent of excision.
  1,431 124 -
Outcome of laminoplasty in cervical spinal cord injury with stable spine
Amir Abbas Ghasemi, Behshad Behfar
July-September 2016, 11(3):282-286
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.175638  
Background and Objective: Cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) with a stable spine has been increasing as the elderly population is dramatically increasing all over the world. In this study, we evaluated the neurological outcome of decompression surgery (laminoplasty) for these patients. Materials and Methods: Forty-one patients with CSCI with stable spine who underwent decompression surgery (laminoplasty) were retrospectively studied. Inclusion criteria were as follows: CSCI without instability, spinal cord contusion in magnetic resonance image (MRI), spinal cord compression rate more than 20%, neurologic deficit American Spinal Cord Injury Association ([ASIA] scale from A to D), and follow-up of at least 12 months. Preoperative neurological state, clinical outcome, and neurological function were measured using the ASIA impairment scale, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) grading scale, and Hirabayashi recovering rate, respectively. Results: Thirty-three (80.4%) patients showed improvement in ASIA grade at 12-month follow-up. Four (9.7%) patients in ASIA Grade A and 4 (9.7%) patients in ASIA Grade D remain unchanged. The mean JOA score improved from 8.4 ± 6.1 points preoperatively to 11.2 ± 5.4 points at 12 months postoperatively. Improvement in JOA was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The mean Hirabayashi recovery rate was 37.4 ± 25.3%. Conclusion: Surgical decompression (laminoplasty) is helpful in relieving cord compromise and neurological deficit in CSCI with stable spine.
  1,353 152 4
CASE REPORTS (ONLINE ONLY)
Delayed supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage following posterior fossa surgery
Pravin Salunke, Vinod Malik, Priyamvadha Kovai, Ashish Aggarwal, Niranjan K Khandelwal
July-September 2016, 11(3):315-315
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.144166  
Delayed supratentorial intracerebral hematoma after posterior fossa surgery is uncommon. Only few cases have been reported in the past. The cause has been attributed to sitting position leading to changes in intracranial arterial and venous pressures. We report two cases of delayed intracerebral hematoma following posterior fossa surgery, none of which were operated in sitting position. MR venogram done in one patient showed venous sinus thrombosis. Intracererbal hematoma following infratentorial surgery is uncommon and is possibly due to venous sinus thrombosis leading to venous hypertension. Control of bleeding from venous sinuses due to avulsion of emissary veins during craniotomy/craniectomy possibly induces sinus thrombosis that may propagate antegrade or retrograde, leading to venous hypertension and parenchymal bleed.
  1,362 138 -
Transformation of a meningioma with atypical imaging
Ashish Kumar, Chandrashekhar Deopujari, Vikram Karmarkar
July-September 2016, 11(3):313-314
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145062  
Meningiomas are benign tumors of the central nervous system. They have long term curability if they are excised completely. If not, they can recur after a prolonged period and can lead to increased morbidity during re-surgery. Recurrence is rarely associated with invasiveness. Usually de-differentiation in case of meningiomas is uncommon without any predisposing factors including different genetic mutations or radiation to the involved region. We report a case of a 38-year-old female who was operated for a benign para-sagittal meningioma 8 years back and subsequently developed an invasive recurrence off late. Also this time, the imaging morphology was slightly different for a meningioma and gross as well as microscopic findings were very atypical. Awareness for such cases must be there while dealing with recurrent meningiomas as invasiveness may not always be associated with adverse predisposing factors like radiation. As invasiveness is always a histopathological diagnosis, picking up such features on imaging is a daunting task and if done, can help neurosurgeons prognosticate such invasive recurrences in a better fashion.
  1,388 101 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Radiological study of C3–C4 level surgical cases of cervical spondylosis
Masato Tomii, Junichi Mizuno, Kazuo Watanabe
July-September 2016, 11(3):273-275
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.175624  
Objective: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the pathological characteristics of C3-C4 cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) from the radiological study. Materials and Methods: A total of 31 patients with single level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) at C3-C4 and 46 patients with single level ACDF at C5-C6 were included in this study. We selected C5-C6 level as a representative of the lower cervical level. The C3-C4 and C5-C6 levels were routinely examined to investigate the areas of the vertebral canal, subarachnoid space, and spinal cord in the cervical canal. Results: The clinical study of C3-C4 ACDF patients showed that as for the C3-C4 area, the area of the cervical vertebral canal, the area of the subarachnoid space, and he transverse surface area of the spinal cord were all significantly smaller in C3-C4 ACDF patients than in C5-C6 ACDF patients. Moreover, as for the C5-C6 area, only the area of the subarachnoid space was significantly smaller in C5-C6 ACDF patients than in C3-C4 ACDF patients. Spondylotic changes predominated at both the C3-C4 and C5-C6 levels. However, in the C5-C6 ACDF patients, spondylotic changes tended to predominate only at the operation level at C5-C6. Conclusions: Aging process develops from lower cervical to upper cervical level. Moreover, this static factor in conjunction with dynamic factor (instability) was the causative factors for the CSM in C3-C4 ACDF patients.
  1,310 171 -
CASE REPORTS (ONLINE ONLY)
Lethal penetrating stab injury to the vertebral artery: A case report with review of literature
Avijit Sarkari, Pankaj K Singh, Ashok K Mahapatra
July-September 2016, 11(3):317-317
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.144192  
The vertebral arteries are rarely injured in penetrating neck trauma due to their deep location in the foramen transversarium. These injuries in isolation are not associated with neurological deficits or ischemic changes on radiology as the collaterals are usually sufficient. We report a case of fatal unilateral vertebral artery stab injury leading to bilateral cerebellar and brainstem infarction. The carotid Doppler ruled out the presence of any carotid artery injury. Life-threatening injuries are possible in the presence of hypoplastic contralateral vertebral artery or inadequate flow from the anterior circulation not making up for the deficit. This emphasizes that thorough evaluation and timely management of suspected injuries to even a single vertebral artery should be undertaken.
  1,377 103 3
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Tectal lipoma presenting with headache: An unusual etiology!
Ashish Kumar, Brahma Prasad
July-September 2016, 11(3):304-304
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145063  
  1,358 121 -
CASE REPORTS (ONLINE ONLY)
Development of contralateral extradural hematomas after evacuation of primary one
Satya Bhusan Senapati, Souvagya Panigrahi, Sudhansu Sekhar Mishra
July-September 2016, 11(3):318-318
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.144147  
The occurrence of bilateral extradural hematomas (EDH) is an uncommon consequence of closed head injuries. Incidence of bilateral EDH has been reported in various studies ranging from 2 to 25%. Bilateral EDH may develop simultaneously or second EDH develops few hours after first one. Development of second EDH after evacuation of primary one is rarely seen. We are reporting one such case. Awareness of this entity is required to detect such cases as timely intervention gives an excellent result like an acute EDH.
  1,358 104 -
Glioblastoma with signet ring cell morphology: A diagnostic challenge
Naveen Krishnamoorthy, Vidya Veldore, PS Sridhar, MJ Govindrajan, Shilpa Prabhudesai, Digantha Hazarika, BS Ajaikumar
July-September 2016, 11(3):319-320
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.149998  
Glioblastoma (WHO Grade IV), the most frequent malignant brain tumor, can have varied morphologic variations like epithelial/glandular structures, granular cells, and lipidized cells. Glioblastoma with signet ring cell morphology is very unusual and can mimic a metastatic carcinoma. These rare tumors may be just a morphological variant or may signify a different carcinogenic pathway.
  1,363 90 1
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Fenestrated optic nerve in craniopharyngioma
Alugolu Rajesh, Dumpa Jagadeeswara Reddy, Suchanda Bhattacharjee
July-September 2016, 11(3):303-303
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145317  
  1,198 247 -
Decompressive laminectomy for thoracic ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament
Alugolu Rajesh, Pavankumar Pelluru, Aniruddh Kumar Purohit
July-September 2016, 11(3):307-308
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145322  
  1,333 110 -
CASE REPORTS (ONLINE ONLY)
'Subarachnoid cyst' after evacuation of chronic subdural hematoma: Case report of an unusual postoperative morbidity
Low Y. Y Sharon, NG Wai Hoe
July-September 2016, 11(3):316-316
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.144210  
Burr-hole drainage of chronic subdural hematomas are routine operative procedures done by neurosurgical residents. Common postoperative complications include acute epidural and/or subdural bleeding, tension pneumocephalus, intracranial hematomas and ischemic cerebral infarction. We report an interesting post-operative complication of a 'subarachnoid cyst' after burr-hole evacuation of a chronic subdural hematoma. The authors hypothesize that the 'cyst' is likely secondary to the splitting of the adjacent neomembrane within its arachnoid-brain interface by iatrogenic irrigation of the subdural space. Over time, this 'cyst' develops into an area of gliosis which eventually causes long-term scar epilepsy in the patient. As far as we are aware, this is the first complication of such a 'subarachnoid cyst' post burr-hole drainage reported in the literature.
  1,289 126 1
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Revealing the hidden: Delight of susceptibility weighted imaging for neurosurgeons!
Lakshmanarao Chittem, Alugolu Rajesh, Ashish Kumar
July-September 2016, 11(3):305-306
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.145326  
  1,239 77 -
CASE REPORTS (ONLINE ONLY)
Cerebellospinal hemangioblastoma with bilateral pheochromocytoma and hepatic cyst: A rare entity
Mrinal Bhuyan, Deep Dutta, Basanta Kumar Baishya, Zakir Hussain
July-September 2016, 11(3):311-311
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.179644  
A 45-year-old gentleman presented with headache, dizziness, and unsteadiness of gait. On imaging, he was found to have a cerebellar and a spinal intramedullary hemangioblastoma. To rule out Von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) disease, we did screening of the whole abdomen with ultrasonography followed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen, and surprisingly, the patient was having bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma and a hepatic cyst. A diagnosis of VHL disease was made on this basis. The patient was operated and he made a very good recovery. We are reporting this interesting case because of its typical findings and its rarity. Disease management and review of literature were also discussed at the end.
  1,140 125 -
Supratentorial endodermal cysts - Report of two cases
Vithal Rangarajan, Amit Mahore, Manoj Kashinath Patil, Ashwini Dnyandaevrao Shendarkar
July-September 2016, 11(3):310-310
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.179642  
We describe two rare cases of frontal cystic lesions presenting with symptoms and signs of raised intracranial pressure. Both had a preoperative diagnosis of an arachnoid cyst and were subjected to a craniotomy with marsupialization of the cyst. However, the histology confirmed them to be an endodermal cyst (EC) on both occasions. Both the patients have been closely followed with no recurrence of symptoms. ECs of the central nervous system are usually reported in the spinal canal, mid-line posterior fossa, and the suprasellar regions. Supratentorial and non-midline ECs are rare, with only about 22 cases previously reported in literature. We discuss both the cases and review the relevant literature.
  1,064 143 5
Good outcome after delayed surgery for orbitocranial non-missile penetrating brain injury
Alessandro Caporlingua, Federico Caporlingua, Jacopo Lenzi
July-September 2016, 11(3):309-309
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.179641  
Nonmissile orbitocranial penetrating brain injuries are uncommonly dealt with in a civilian context. Surgical management is controversial, due to the lack of widely accepted guidelines. A 52-year-old man was hit in his left eye by a metallic foreign body (FB). Head computed tomography (CT) scan showed a left subcortical parietal FB with a considerable hemorrhagic trail originating from the left orbital roof. Surgical treatment was staged; an exenteratio oculi and a left parietal craniotomy to extract the FB under intraoperative CT guidance were performed at post trauma day third and sixth, respectively. A postoperative infectious complication was treated conservatively. The patient retained a right hemiparesis (3/5) and was transferred to rehabilitation in good clinical conditions at day 49th. He had suspended antiepilectic therapy at that time. A case-by-case tailored approach is mandatory to achieve the best outcome in such a heterogeneous nosological entity. Case reporting is crucial to further understand its mechanism and dynamics.
  932 103 1
Tension pneumocephalus causing brain herniation after endoscopic sinus surgery
Erhan Çelikoglu, Jülide Hazneci, Ali Fatih Ramazanoglu
July-September 2016, 11(3):309-310
DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.179646  
Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) may rarely be complicated by intracranial complications; the most common of them is a cerebrospinal fluid fistula. Pneumocephalus as a complication of ESS is quite rare. Here, we presented a unique case of tension pneumocephalus causing brain herniation as a complication of ESS, to whom emergent craniotomy was performed.
  525 57 1
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