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CASE REPORT
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 232-233

Ganglioneuroma arising from the L5 nerve root: A rare case report


1 Department of Pathology, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India
2 Department of Neurosurgery, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication22-Jul-2015

Correspondence Address:
Kavita Mardi
12.A, Type V Quarters, IAS Colony, Kasumpti, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: Nil, Conflict of Interest: None declared.


DOI: 10.4103/1793-5482.161180

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  Abstract 


Ganglioneuroma is a rare, benign, slow-growing, well-differentiated tumor consisting ganglion cells and Schwann cells. Ganglioneuromas originate from neural crest cells and can affect any part of the sympathetic tissue from the skull base to the pelvis. However, ganglioneuroma occurring in the nerve root is extremely rare. We describe a 44-year-old man with ganglioneuroma involving the right fifth lumbar nerve root.

Keywords: Ganglioneuroma, lumbar nerve root, spine


How to cite this article:
Mardi K, Thakur RC, Biswas B. Ganglioneuroma arising from the L5 nerve root: A rare case report. Asian J Neurosurg 2015;10:232-3

How to cite this URL:
Mardi K, Thakur RC, Biswas B. Ganglioneuroma arising from the L5 nerve root: A rare case report. Asian J Neurosurg [serial online] 2015 [cited 2021 May 11];10:232-3. Available from: https://www.asianjns.org/text.asp?2015/10/3/232/161180


  Introduction Top


Ganglioneuromas originate from neural crest cells and can affect any part of the sympathetic tissue from the skull base to the pelvis. Those arising from spinal nerve root are extremely rare.[1]


  Case Report Top


A 44-year-old male presented with low backache that aggravated on cough and strain. He also complained of numbness on both side saddle and toe and left calf muscle pain. On examination, root pain was along left L5 distribution with numbness in L5 dermatone. magnetic resonance imaging was suggestive of nerve root tumor [Figure 1]. Laminectomy in L5-S1, and excision if nerve root tumor after keeping perineural sheath intact. Tumor was excised end to end nerve sheath closed. On microscopic examination, there were clusters as well as scattered variably sized mature ganglion cells embedded in a stroma comprising of Schwann like cells with an elongated wavy serpentine nucleus [Figure 2]. The tumor was diagnosed as ganglioneuroma of L5 nerve root. Postoperatively, there was improvement with complete relief of pain and numbness around the saddle area and little toe in 7 days.
Figure 1: Magnetic resonance imaging revealing the tumor arising from L5 nerve root

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Figure 2: Photomicrograph revealing mature ganglion cells in a Schwann cell rich stroma, (H and E, ×40)

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  Discussion Top


Ganglioneuroma is a rare, benign, slow-growing, well-differentiated tumor consisting of ganglion cells and Schwann cells. Ganglioneuromas originate from neural crest cells and can affect any part of the sympathetic tissue from the skull base to the pelvis. Ganglioneuromas are a class of peripheral neuroblastic tumors that include three subgroups depending on cellular and extracellular differentiation: Neuroblastomas (most immature, undifferentiated, and with the most malignant potential), ganglioneuroblastomas (intermediate malignant potential), and ganglioneuromas (fully differentiated, most benign).

Central nervous system ganglioneuromas are rare and most often occur in children and young adults with most prevalent locations being the third ventricle and hypothalamus.[1] Most cases involve the paraspinal region with intraspinal extension extradurally through the neural foramen, leading to dumbbell-shaped tumors.[2] This also leads to extradural compression of the spinal cord.[2] Spinal ganglioneuroma occurs most frequently in the cervical spine, followed by thoracic spine and lumbar spine.[2] Ganglioneuroma occurring in the nerve root is very rare.[3][4][5][6] A few cases of ganglioneuroma occurring in the cervical nerve root have been reported.[4],[5]

Ganglioneuroma occurs most frequently in children and young adults under the age of 30 and rarely in those older than 60 years.[7] It shows a slight female predominance.[7]

Clinical sign and symptoms of spinal ganglioneuromas vary depending on its location in the spine. Sometimes, they are detected incidentally on radiographic studies done for some other reasons as they are asymptomatic. There are usually signs of spinal cord compression such as motor and sensory deficits and/or bowel and bladder disturbances. Pain may be variable, and local pain is generally dull, but it could be burning and lancinating in extremities. Scoliosis has been reported in patients with dumbbell ganglioneuromas.[2],[4]

Characteristic histological findings help to distinguish these tumors from the schwannoma, neurofibroma, or meningioma. In the differential diagnosis of extradural nerve root tumors, metastatic diseases, lymphomas, and Ewing’s sarcoma also should be considered.[8][9][10]

The treatment of choice is surgical resection.[7] Adjuvant systemic chemotherapy and local radiotherapy have limited roles due to their benign biological nature.[7] The long-term prognosis is excellent regardless of tumor location as long as total tumor excision is performed.[7] However, local recurrence has been reported after surgical resection, so regular radiologic follow-up with neurologic examination and radiologic evaluation is necessary even after complete excision.[7]



 
  References Top

1.
Rubeinstein LJ. Tumors of the Central Nervous System. 2nd ed. Washington DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology; 1972. p. 154-67.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Sun WS, Jung YT, Kim SC, Sim JH. A dumbbell-shaped thoraco-lumbar extradural ganglioneuroma: Case report. J Korean Neurosurg Soc 2002;32:481-4.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Kyoshima K, Sakai K, Kanaji M, Oikawa S, Kobayashi S, Sato A, et al. Symmetric dumbbell ganglioneuromas of bilateral C2 and C3 roots with intradural extension associated with von Recklinghausen’s disease: Case report. Surg Neurol 2004;61:468-73.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Shephard RH, Sutton D. Dumb-bell ganglioneuromata of the spine with a report of four cases. Br J Surg 1958;45:305-17.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Uchida K, Kobayashi S, Kubota C, Imamura Y, Bangirana A, Mwaka E, et al. Microsurgical excision of ganglioneuroma arising from the C8 nerve root within the neuroforamen. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 2007;50:350-4.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Jeong M, Lee S, Joo KB, Jang KS, Bae J. Ganglioneuroma of lumbar nerve root: A case report. J Korean Soc Radiol 2013;68:153-6.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Mounasamy V, Thacker MM, Humble S, Azouz ME, Pitcher JD, Scully SP, et al. Ganglioneuromas of the sacrum – A report of two cases with radiologic-pathologic correlation. Skeletal Radiol 2006;35:117-21.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Cugati G, Singh M, Pande A, Ramamurthi R, Balasubramanyam M, Sethi SK, et al. Primary spinal epidural lymphomas. J Craniovertebr Junction Spine 2011;2:3-11.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Isefuku S, Seki M, Tajino T, Hakozaki M, Asano S, Hojo H, et al. Ewing’s sarcoma in the spinal nerve root: A case report and review of the literature. Tohoku J Exp Med 2006;209:369-77.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Yabe I, Nishimura H, Tsuji-Akimoto S, Niino M, Sasaki H. Teaching NeuroImages: Lumbar nerve roots metastasis from prostatic adenocarcinoma. Neurology 2009;72:e103-4.  Back to cited text no. 10
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]


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