An Official publication of The Asian Congress of Neurological Surgeons (AsianCNS)

Search Article
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Advertise Subscribe Contacts Login  Facebook Tweeter
  Users Online: 344 Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size  

   Table of Contents      
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 601-607

A practice survey to compare and identify the usefulness of neuroendoscope and exoscope in the current neurosurgery practice


1 Department of Neurosurgery, GNRC Hospitals, North Guwahati, Assam, India; Department of Neurosurgery, Bantane Hospital, Fujita Health University, Nagoya, Japan
2 Department of Neurosurgery, Bantane Hospital, Fujita Health University, Nagoya, Japan
3 Department of Neurosurgery, Japanese Red Cross Nagoya Daini Hospital, Nagoya, Japan
4 Department of Neurosurgery, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Japan

Date of Submission18-Nov-2019
Date of Acceptance26-Mar-2020
Date of Web Publication28-Aug-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sunil Panchal
B 402 Universal Ecogreen Apartment, Betkuchi, Guwahati - 781 040, Assam

Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ajns.AJNS_339_19

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Background: The present era is of new tools and technique. Handling of new challenges require, better understanding of microscopic anatomy, which requires better magnification and light. Microscope has played significant role in this, use of endoscope and introduction of exoscope have given new dimensions to this field. Aim: This study aims to compare and see the advantages, disadvantages of endoscope with exoscope, will analyze the difference in terms of ergonomics, learning curve, opportunities for training, operating time, magnification, and image quality. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Neurosurgery, Bantane Hospital Fujita Health University, Japan. Apart from comparing the specifications of available systems, we conducted a worldwide survey of the two systems through sending questionnaire through mail collected responses and analyzed them. Results: Learning curve, magnification, image quality, and ergonomics favors exoscope but depth perception and maneuverability, hand eye coordination, tactile sensation, and usage of different angulation tubes favored endoscope to be superior to exoscope. Conclusion: There is more scope for modifications and research in both the instruments. These instruments are not replacement of either and should be used according to their indications.

Keywords: Endoscope, exoscope, survey


How to cite this article:
Panchal S, Yamada Y, Nagatani T, Watanabe T, Kishida Y, Sayah A, Kato Y. A practice survey to compare and identify the usefulness of neuroendoscope and exoscope in the current neurosurgery practice. Asian J Neurosurg 2020;15:601-7

How to cite this URL:
Panchal S, Yamada Y, Nagatani T, Watanabe T, Kishida Y, Sayah A, Kato Y. A practice survey to compare and identify the usefulness of neuroendoscope and exoscope in the current neurosurgery practice. Asian J Neurosurg [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Oct 24];15:601-7. Available from: https://www.asianjns.org/text.asp?2020/15/3/601/293736


  Introduction Top


Optics has played a significant role in the evolution of neurosurgery. The use of magnification came in around 800BC.[1] We started using operating microscope in 20th century. Neurosurgeons throughout the 1960s also began to formally teach and disseminate the techniques of the surgical microscope. Donaghy and Yasargil organized the first microvascular symposium in October 1966.[2],[3] With passage of time, we started using improved magnification, with better light system, better maneuverability. Simultaneously, we started using endoscopes. First experiences with the use of this new method in different fields of medicine began in the early 20th century. The development of neuroendoscopy was related to the treatment of hydrocephalus.[4]

A significant advantage of endoscopy includes improvements in surgeon's comfort, lesser fatigue, and less morbidity.[5],[6] As compared to operating microscopes focal length is much shorter in endoscopes, thus needs to be placed in close proximity to the intracranial structures which limits the usage of instruments around the scope and frequent obstruction of the lens by blood and tissue obstructed the work flow which limited the neurosurgical application of endoscopy. Latest in the series exoscope, this is a high definition extracorporeal telescope. Exoscope system was developed over the past decade, appears to be an answer to the limitations of microscope and endoscope.[6],[7]

Video telescopic operating monitor works on the principle of telescopic surgery with familiar microsurgical instrument; thus, it acts as a bridge between microneurosurgery and endoneurosurgery as well as it improves surgeon comfort, minimizes fatigue, and reduces surgical morbidity and patient discomfort. This system was also used successfully in various cranial and spinal microneurosurgery in place of the microscope as well as in another specialty. In comparison to the endoscope, the exoscope has a broad field of view (600 vs. 25 mm) and greater mean focal distance (200–300 vs. 3–20 mm), allowing the access of neurosurgical instruments without much difficulty. In addition, it is easier to setup exoscope. With the use of exoscope both the surgeon and assistant gets to see the same view. And also allows the rest of operating room (OR) team to follow the procedure with ease. Stereopsis was a matter of concern with initial exoscope. New 3-D 4K-HD exoscope system has significantly solved this issue.


  Materials and Methods Top


This study was conducted in the Department of Neurosurgery, Bantane Hospital Fujita Health University, Japan. Apart from comparing the specifications of available systems, we conducted a worldwide survey of the two systems through sending questionnaire through mail [Table 1], collected responses and analyzed them.
Table 1: Survey questionnaire

Click here to view


Analyzing instruments

EXOSCOPE

(Discussed here are, VITOM, KINEVO, ORBEYE).

VITOM

The Storz VITOM (Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany) was the first neurosurgical exoscope, freeing the surgeon from the need to interface directly with the magnifying device.

Initial version:

Length: 14 cm, outer diameter of 10 mm

Light source: 300-W xenonfiberoptic light box

Image: 23-inch, high-definition monitor

Working distance: 25–60 cm

Limitation: Steep learning curve,[8] fixed pneumatic holder, two-dimensional (2D) view. Now improved to 3D VITOM (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany).

KINEVO

To combine the advantages of both the standard microscope and the 3D exoscope, the KINEVO (Carl Zeiss AG, Oberkochen, Germany) was designed with the idea of creating a robotic, navigational microscope that can be converted into an exoscope.

Advantages: Kinematics/mobility through mouthpiece adjustment, 3D 4 K resolution, indocyanine green video angiography are integrated into the optics to allow the dye runs to be viewed directly through the microscope, rather than looking away to the monitor.[9]

Limitations: Heavy footprint/size and impaired workflow.[9]

ORBEYE

3D 4 K (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan).

Advantages: 3D 4 K ultra-high-definition imaging. The use of 55-inch 4K 3D monitor contributes to a reduction of surgeon fatigue and facilitates team surgery.

Significant reduction in size (95% smaller than the conventional model).

Limitations: One subjective disadvantage has been the visualization of

Bleeding tissue particularly in muscle or white matter. Image quality degrades and is inferior to that of the microscope in these situations.[9]

Neuroendoscopes

A 0-degree angled eyepiece olympus endoscope for endoscope-assisted

Microneurosurgery [Figure 1]
Figure 1: Zero degree endoscope

Click here to view


The use of a microelectro mechanical system has improved light discrimination to view different structures of the brain when obtaining an image.[10]

(KARL STORZ GmbH and Co., Tuttlingen, Germany).

Angulation 15–90 degree

Source of light: Light-emitting diode

The most novel is the introduction of the “insect eye” technology,

Developed by Visionsense Corp., (New York, New York, USA), where a 3D

lens system is attached to the endoscope.

Hopkins' endoscopic systems and optics have proved to be the most influential in the field of neuroendoscopy and provide the basis of the endoscopes that are used to the present day.


  Results Top


Specification of endoscope and exoscope, comparison is show in [Table 2]. Of the 280 surveys that were received at the recipient e-mail addresses, Graphical distribution of the responses are shown in [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10], [Figure 11] and [Table 3].
Table 2: Comparing specifications of Endoscope with Eexoscope

Click here to view
Figure 2: Which type of institution you are affiliated with

Click here to view
Figure 3: How frequently you use exoscope and endoscope

Click here to view
Figure 4: Opportunities for training of Endoscope

Click here to view
Figure 5: Opportunities for training of Exoscope

Click here to view
Figure 6: Which instrument is better for depth perception

Click here to view
Figure 7: Ease of maneuverability

Click here to view
Figure 8: Learning curve

Click here to view
Figure 9: Image quality

Click here to view
Figure 10: Which instrument you find magnification is better

Click here to view
Figure 11: Duration of surgery

Click here to view
Table 3: Survey results

Click here to view


Forty-seven were returned and thus response rate was 16.78%; therefore, the study is based on the analysis of specifications of various available instruments through available literature and opinion of 47 neurosurgeons working in different parts of the world.

Place of work

Which type of institution you are affiliated with?

Out of 47 responders, majority of people were working in private hospital (83%). 14.9% were working in government hospitals, and 2.1% working as visiting consultant.

Usage of the two instruments

How frequently you use exoscope and endoscope.

Forty-seven people responded.

53.2% people mentioned frequent usage, 25.5% use only endoscope, 6.4% surgeons used only exoscope, and 4.3% mentioned rarely using either of the instruments.

Training opportunities

We received 47 responses, majority of the people said training for endoscope is available at some places only and for exoscope it is available at few places only.

Depth perception

Received 46 responses

Majority of the surgeons (67.4%) felt endoscope is better for depth perception. Only 19.6% felt exoscope is better for depth perception.

Ease of maneuverability

Forty-six responses

76.1% feel endoscope has got better maneuverability, 19.6% feel its better with exoscope.

Learning curve

Forty-seven responses

Majority of the surgeons, 80.9% said exoscope is easy to learn and work.

Quality of the image

Forty-six responses

Majority of the surgeons said that 76.1% said exoscope gives better image while only 13% found endoscope to give better image quality in comparison to exoscope.

Magnification

Forty-seven responses

Majority of the surgeons, 74.5% feel exoscope gives better magnification in comparison to the endoscope; only 10.6% said that endoscope is better.

Duration of surgery

Forty-seven responses

85.1% said that it depends on case to case, 2.1% said it is similar in both the instruments with minimal difference.


  Discussion Top


This study has compared the two operative scope endoscope and exoscope which is actually extension of the preexisting microscope. The use of particular instrument depends on the requirement of case, and capabilities of the instrument. In this study, we have analyzed the specific details of the available endoscope and exoscope system, through survey we gathered the opinion of neurosurgeons working in different parts of the world. Both the endoscope and exoscopes have their advantages and limitations. Exoscopy is a newly emerging technique

for neurosurgery allowing visualization of the intracranial structures from outside of the body rather than inside, the way the endoscope does.[7],[11],[12],[13]

Neuroendoscopes utilize long, narrow-diameter rod lenses with short focal lengths and “direct in-line” visual trajectories, resulting in a relatively fixed, narrow field of view that is easily obscured with the introduction of surgical instruments or with moderate to brisk bleeding.[14]

Due to the limitation of 2D images, endoscopes generally used for limited procedures such as transsphenoidal, endonasal skull base, or intraventricular procedures.[13]

With the development of image guided systems which improves the surgical precision and gives better outcome.[13],[15]

Exoscope has a wide and larger working distance as compared to neuroendoscopes, thus permits efficient usage of surgical instruments. Being familiar to the traditional operating microscopes learning curve is much smaller. In addition, there are no issues of lens fogging or cleaning, problems frequently encountered with the endoscopy.[16],[17]

Neuroendoscopes

Advantages

  • Good maneuverability
  • Depth perception
  • Minimal brain retraction
  • Minimal access
  • Access to blind areas using adequate angulation
  • Availability
  • Good opportunities for training.


Disadvantages

  • Steep learning curve
  • Use limited to certain procedures only
  • Chance of damage to intracranial structures
  • Blood frequently obstructs the vision.


Exoscope

Advantages

  • Latest exoscope system gives following advantages
  • 4K 3D visualization
  • Precise images for seeing more
  • Anatomical details and tissue structure
  • 4K 3D visualization
  • No image latency
  • Super high ×26
  • More comfortable and natural working posture
  • Comfortable heads-up posture
  • Freedom from ocular lenses
  • Positioning flexibility
  • Ample operative space
  • Larger working distance
  • Wider field of view
  • Familiarity with conventional microscopes
  • Same picture for surgeon, assistant side-by-side, and other staff.
  • No obscuration of surgical field with blood.


Disadvantages

  • Light does not focus in deeper parts
  • Not good for minimally invasive procedures
  • Lack of easy availability.



  Conclusion Top


The 3-D 4K-HD is a novel exoscope system aimed at improving visualization and overall operative experience of the entire team. Learning curve, magnification, image quality, and ergonomics favor exoscope but depth perception and maneuverability favors endoscope. Hand eye coordination, tactile sensation, and usage of different angulation tubes favored endoscope to be superior to exoscope. As there is more scope for modifications and research in both the instruments, these instruments are not replacement of either and should be used according to the indications.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Bradbury S. The Evolution of the Microscope. London: Pergam on Press; 1965.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Buncke HJ. Forty years of microsurgery: What's next? J Hand Surg Am 1995;20:S34-45.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Buncke HJ. Microsurgery-retrospective. Clin Plast Surg 1986;13:315-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Stachura K, Libionka W. An outline of the history of neuroendoscopy. Przegl Lek 2007;64:118-20.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Quilici PJ, Greaney EM Jr., Quilici J, Anderson S. Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair results: 131 cases. Am Surg 1993;59:824-30.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Mamelak AN, Nobuto T, Berci G. Initial clinical experience with a high-definition exoscope system for microneuro surgery. Neurosurgery 2010;67:476-83.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Mamelak AN, Danielpour M, Black KL, Hagike M, Berci G. A high-definition exoscope system for neurosurgery and other microsurgical disciplines: Preliminary report. Surg Innov 2008;15:38-46.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Parihar V, Yadav YR, Kher Y, Ratre S, Sethi A, Sharma D. Learning neuroendoscopy with an exoscope system (video telescopic operating monitor): Early clinical results. Asian J Neurosurg 2016;11:421-6.  Back to cited text no. 8
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
9.
Langer DJ, White TG, Schulder M, Boockvar JA, Labib M, Lawton MT. Advances in intraoperative optics: A brief review of current exoscope platforms. Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2019;0:1-10.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Chamot SR, Depeursinge C. MEMS for enhanced optical diagnostics in endoscopy. Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol 2007;16:101-8.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Di Ieva A, Komatsu M, Komatsu F, Tschabitscher M. Endoscopic telovelar approach to the fourth ventricle: Anatomic study. Neurosurg Rev 2012;35:341-8.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Di Ieva A, Tschabitscher M, Galzio RJ, Grabner G, Kronnerwetter C, Widhalm G, et al. The veins of the nucleus dentatus: Anatomical and radiological findings. Neuroimage 2011;54:74-9.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Mamelak AN, Nobuto T, Berci G. Initial clinical experience with a high-definition exoscope system for microneurosurgery. Neurosurgery 2010;67:476-83.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Cruvinel MG, Duarte JB, Castro CH, Costa JR, Kux P. Multimodal approach to rapid discharge after endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2005;49:238-42.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Spiotta AM, Fiorella D, Vargas J, Khalessi A, Hoit D, Arthur A, et al. Initial multicenter technical experience with the Apollo device for minimally invasive intracerebral hematoma evacuation. Neurosurgery 2015;11 Suppl 2:243-51.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Carlucci C, Fasanella L, Ricci Maccarini A. Exolaryngoscopy: A new technique for laryngeal surgery. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital 2012;32:326-8.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Snyderman CH, Pant H, Kassam AB, Carrau RL, Prevedello MD, Gardner PA. The learning curve for endonasal Surgery of the cranial base: A systematic approach to training. In: Kassam AB, editor. Endoscopic Approaches to the Skull Base: Progessin Neurological Surgery. 1st ed. Basel: Karger; 2012. p. 222-31.  Back to cited text no. 17
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10], [Figure 11]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
<
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
   Abstract
  Introduction
   Materials and Me...
  Results
  Discussion
  Conclusion
   References
   Article Figures
   Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed116    
    Printed4    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded29    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal