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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 99-105

Evaluation of cognitive functions in traumatic brain injury patients using mini mental state examination and clock drawing test


1 Department of Physiology, Uttar Pradesh University of Medical Sciences, Etawah, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Neurosurgery, Uttar Pradesh University of Medical Sciences, Etawah, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Community Medicine, Uttar Pradesh University of Medical Sciences, Etawah, Uttar Pradesh, India
4 Department of Neurology, Uttar Pradesh University of Medical Sciences, Etawah, Uttar Pradesh, India
5 Research Scholar, Uttar Pradesh University of Medical Sciences, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Anamika Singh
Department of Physiology, Uttar Pradesh University of Medical Sciences, Saifai, Etawah, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ajns.AJNS_331_20

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Background: Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are the leading cause of morbidity, mortality, disability, and socioeconomic losses globally, but of more concern, in India and other developing countries. The Mini mental state examination (MMSE) and clock drawing test (CDT) are the two mostly adapted methods for cognitive impairment screening. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a robust evaluation system exclusively for post-TBI cognitive impairment. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty-four cases treated previously at the health facility for TBIs were evaluated for cognitive functions during the follow-up period ranging from 3 weeks to 6 months in the out-patient department. All cases underwent mini-mental score examination (MMSE) and CDT to assess their cognitive performances. The data were analyzed statistically using Chi-square and ANOVA tests of significance. Results: Statistically significant association (P < 0.001) between the cognitive status of patients on the basis of overall MMSE score and the site of brain injury was observed. It was noted that 76 (56.7%) of the cases had cognitive impairment (MMSE score <24) with majority 44 (32.8%) patients having frontal lobe injuries, followed by 14 (10.1%) having brain injuries in the temporal lobe. On the other hand, using CDT score, it was observed that 102 (76.1%) of the cases had cognitive impairment (CDT score <5) with the majority 49 (36.6%) cases having frontal lobe injury followed by 19 (14.2%) having brain injury in the parietal lobe. Conclusion: The CDT was able to access cognitive function disruption in those patients, in whom the mini-mental score examination was not able to assess the same, and this difference in detection capabilities of both the tests was statistically found significant.


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