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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 249-257

Algorithm of traumatic brain injury in pregnancy (Perspective on neurosurgery)

1 Department of Neurosurgery, Dr. Soetomo Academic General Hospital; Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
2 Department of Neurosurgery, Dr. Soetomo Academic General Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia

Correspondence Address:
MD Tedy Apriawan
Department of Neurosurgery, Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Mayjend Prof. Dr. Moestopo St. No. 6 – 8, Gubeng, Surabaya 60285, East Java
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ajns.AJNS_243_20

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Background: The maternal deaths due to obstetrical cases declined, but the maternal deaths that caused by nonobstetrical cases still increase. The study reported that traumatic cases in pregnancy are the highest causes of mortality in pregnancy (nonobstetrical cases) in the United States. Another study reported that 1 in 12 pregnant women that experienced traumatic accident and as many as 9.1% of the trauma cases were caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI). The female sex hormone has an important role that regulates the hemodynamic condition. Anatomical and physiological changes during pregnancy make the examination, diagnosis, and treatment of TBI different from non-pregnant cases. Therefore, it is very important to lead the algorithm for each institution based on their own resources. Case Series: A 37-year-old woman with a history of loss of consciousness after traffic accident. She rode a motorbike then hit the car. She was referred at 18 weeks' gestation. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) E1V1M4, isochoric of the pupil, reactive to the light reflex, and right-sided hemiparesis. The non-contrast head computed tomography (CT) scan revealed subdural hematoma (SDH) in the left frontal-temporal-parietal region, SDH of the tentorial region, burst lobe intracerebral hemorrhage, and cerebral edema. There was not a fetal distress condition. The next case, a 31 years old woman, in 26 weeks gestation, had a history of unconscious after motorcycle accident then she fell from the height down to the field about 3 m. GCS E1V1M3, isochoric of the pupil, but the pupil reflex decreased. Noncontrast CT scan revealed multiple contusion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and cerebral edema. She had a good fetal condition. Discussion: We proposed the algorithm of TBI in pregnancy that we already used in our hospital. The main principle of the initial management must be resuscitating the mother and that also the maternal resuscitation. The primary and secondary survey is always prominent of the initial treatment. Conclusion: The clinical decision depends on the condition of the fetal, the surgical lesion of the intracranial, and also the resources of the neonatal intensive care unit in our hospital.

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