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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 288-293

Outcome of decompressive craniectomy for traumatic brain injury: An institutional-based analysis from Nepal

Department of Neurosciences, Nepal Mediciti Hospital, Lalitpur, Nepal

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Prakash Paudel
Department of Neurosciences, Nepal Mediciti Hospital, PO Box 44600, Sainbu, Lalitpur
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ajns.AJNS_392_20

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Objective: Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is one of the commonly used treatment modalities for refractory intracranial hypertension after traumatic brain injury. The objective of this study is to assess the functional outcome following DC in closed traumatic brain injury based on Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at Nepal Mediciti Hospital, Nepal, from September 2017 to October 2019. Data of the patients who had undergone DC for closed traumatic brain injury were reviewed from medical record files. Patients who had DC for nontraumatic causes were excluded from the study. Functional outcome was assessed using GOS at 3 months of follow-up. Results: Of the 52 decompressive craniectomies, 46 were included in the study. The majority was male (71.7%). The mean age and the mean Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at presentation were 41.87 (standard deviation [SD] ± 15.29) and 7.59 (SD ± 2.97), respectively. The most common mode of injury was road traffic accident (76.1%). 60.9% had GCS score ≤8 while 39.1% had >8 GCS on admission. 34.8% had both the pupils reactive while 58.7% were anisocoric. Majority had Marshall IV and above grade of injury (67.4%). Sixteen (34.8%) had inhospital mortality. Favorable outcome was seen in 39.1%. GCS score >8 at presentation (72.2%, P < 0.001), bilaterally intact pupillary reflexes (75%, P < 0.001), Marshall grade injury ≤3 on computed tomography scan (90%, P < 0.001), and age <50 years (50%, P = 0.039) were significantly associated with favorable outcome. Procedure-related complications were seen in 36.9%. Conclusion: Favorable outcome was seen in 39.1%. Age <50 years, higher GCS score at presentation (>8), intact pupillary reflexes, and lower Marshall grade injuries were associated with favorable outcome. We recommend a larger prospective study to assess the long-term functional outcome after DC using extended GOS.

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