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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 326-334

Analysis of giant intraventricular and extraventricular epidermoids, defining risk factors for recurrence, an institutional experience


Department of Neurosurgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Vikas Chandra Jha
Department of Neurosurgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ajns.AJNS_488_20

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Background: Multicompartmental intraventricular epidermoids behave differently from multicompartmental extraventricular lesions and localized lesions during its management. Few studies are available which have analyzed risk factors separately in these groups of cases for recurrence of these lesions and time to recur. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective observational study, 72 cases of intracranial epidermoid were treated over a span of 7 years. Cases were categorized into three groups. Group 1 comprised 15% (11/72) of cases with intraventricular multicompartmental, Group 2 with 22% (16/72) extraventricular giant tumors with multicompartmental involvement and size >4.5 cm, and Group 3 comprised 63% (45/72) of patients with lesions <4.5 cm and localized. Data pertaining to demography, clinical and radiological features, surgery performed, postoperative complication, histology, and follow-up were obtained from medical records available in the institute. Results: The average duration to treat was 1.86 ± 0.52 (standard deviation [SD]) years, with headache as a major complaint in all the groups. Combined endoscope-assisted microsurgery was performed in 38.8% (28/72), microsurgery in 54.1% (39/72), and endoscopic excision in 6.9% (5/72) of cases. Tumor calcification was found in 23.6% (17/72) and preoperative capsular enhancement was seen in 19.4% (14/72) which persisted in 79% (11/14) of cases postoperatively on subsequent follow-up suggesting recurrence. On stepwise logistic regression analysis, preoperative capsular enhancement was a strong predictor of recurrence of tumor (P = 0.001). The average follow-up was 46 ± 14.92 (SD) months in Group 1, 52.34 ± 11.45 (SD) months in Group 2, and 63.36 ± 18.42 (SD) months in Group 3. Conclusion: Although the intracranial epidermoid is known to recur after long interval, tumor with specific characteristics can recur in short span of 5–6 years. Tumor characteristics such as preoperative capsular enhancement, multicompartmental distribution in vertebrobasilar territory, large size, and presence of calcification are strong predictors for recurrence. Performing endoscope-assisted microsurgery can decrease the postoperative morbidities but does not reduce the recurrence risk.


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