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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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July-September 2020
Volume 15 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 469-797

Online since Friday, August 28, 2020

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EDITORIAL  

Neurosurgical practice during Coronavirus Disease-2019 pandemic Highly accessed article p. 469
Ahmed Ansari
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_141_20  
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

A review of common endoscopic intracranial approaches Highly accessed article p. 471
Aneela Darbar, Fatima Mustansir, Ummey Hani, Mir Ibrahim Sajid
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_367_19  
With the evolution of surgical techniques, endoscopy has emerged as a suitable alternative to many instances of more invasive methods. In this review article, we aim to discuss the endoscopic advancements, procedural details, indications, and outcomes of the most commonly practiced neuroendoscopic procedures. We have also summarized the uses, techniques, and challenges of neuroendoscopy in select neurosurgical pathologies.
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Top

The onset and recovery timeline of visual photosensitivity following mild traumatic brain injury with special focus on habitual digital device screens users Highly accessed article p. 479
Matuli Das, Narendra Kumar Das
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_187_19  
Primary Objective: Visual photosensitivity following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can cause mild discomfort to significant pain and can affect a person's ability to lead a regular life and perform normal activities. The purpose of the present study is twofold: (1) To determine the recovery pattern of visual photosensitivity following mTBI and (2) to find out whether the onset of visual photosensitivity and its recovery pattern is any different among habitual screen users (HSU) (chronic exposure to digital device screens). Materials and Methods: This study was a hospital-based prospective, analytical, observational study. The study period was from July 2017 to March 2019. All the mTBI patients with visual photosensitivity who fulfilled the inclusion Criteria were followed up for 1 year to capture their recovery profile. Results: In 60% of the patients, the time of appearance of visual photosensitivity was at around 3 month's post-mTBI. Nearly 66.6% of patients suffering from visual photosensitivity following mTBI recovered within 3 months following the onset of their symptoms. The symptoms of visual photosensitivity appeared earlier among the HSU as compared to nonscreen users (P = 0.0039). The recovery from the symptoms of visual photosensitivity following mTBI is delayed in HSU (P = 0.0028). The patients in whom the symptoms of visual photosensitivity persisted beyond a year were predominantly HSU (P = 0.0062). Conclusions: The present study has given a new insight on the timeline of recovery for the patients with visual photosensitivity following mTBI. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only study which has shown how chronic exposure to blue light from digital device screens can affect the recovery of visual symptoms such as visual photosensitivity following mTBI.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Institutional experience of microsurgical management in posterior circulation aneurysm Highly accessed article p. 484
Raghavendra Kumar Sharma, Ambuj Kumar, Yasuhiro Yamada, Riki Tanaka, Saurabh Sharma, Kyosuke Miyatani, Saeko Higashiguchi, Tsukasa Kawase, Srikanth Talluri, Yoko Kato
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_69_20  
Introduction: Posterior circulation aneurysm constitutes 15%–20% of all intracerebral aneurysms. With the advancement of endovascular techniques, the microsurgery for posterior circulation aneurysms has been pushed back a little. Even the International Subarachnoid Aneurysmal Trial gave support to the concepts of endovascular procedures, but microsurgical modality should not be discouraged. We present our institutional experience of microsurgical techniques on posterior circulation aneurysms. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 37 patients of posterior circulation aneurysm from 2015 to 2019, referred to Bantane Hospital, Japan. We included all posterior circulation aneurysms such as basilar tip, basilar trunk, and vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery (VA-PICA) aneurysms, admitted and treated with clipping or bypass and trapping. We assessed the outcome as measured by modified Rankin Score (mRS), complications, and mortality. Results: Out of 37 patients, 10 cases were a basilar tip, one case was the basilar trunk, and 26 cases were VA-PICA aneurysm. Intraoperatively, neuromonitoring, indocyanine green dye, dual-image videoangiography (DIVA), and neuro endoscope were used. Two patients of basilar tip aneurysm developed third cranial nerve paresis and six patients of VA-PICA aneurysm developed lower cranial nerve paresis which resolved spontaneously. All the patients were discharged with mRS of 0 or 1. No mortality was recorded in our study. Conclusion: Microsurgical clipping of posterior circulation aneurysm is safe in unruptured aneurysm with a very low risk of mortality and morbidity under experienced hands. All postoperative complications in our study were transient and resolved with time with no residual deficits. Preoperative simulation, intraoperative neuromonitoring, DIVA, and neuro endoscope help achieve complete obliteration of aneurysmal sac and avoid complications.
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Association between serum levels of interleukin-6 on pain and disability in lumbar disc herniation surgery Highly accessed article p. 494
Kaveh Haddadi, Saeed Abediankenari, Abbas Alipour, Hamid Reza Ganjeh Ghazvini, Hamed Jafarpour, Leila Asadian, Seid Ebrahim Ketabchi
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_71_20  
Context: Many inflammatory cytokines are also elevated in degenerated or herniated intervertebral discs. Among biomarkers, interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays an essential role in the inflammatory process of disc herniation. Some studies have suggested that an increase in serum IL-6 levels occurs in sustained radicular pain. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between changes in IL-6 serum level and pain and disability index in patients with radicular pain in acute herniated lumbar disc before and after lumbar disc surgery. Settings and Design: This is a descriptive-analytic prospective study to examine the association between IL-6 serum levels on pain and disability before and after the surgery in patients admitted with acute herniated lumbar intervertebral discs from 2015 to 2018 in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran. Subjects and Methods: The blood level of IL-6, the severity of pain based on visual analog score, and disability based on the Oswestry disability index were measured before and 3 months after surgery. Statistical Analysis Used: All data were analyzed using SPSS version 24. Results: Thirty-two patients were enrolled in the study. Seventeen patients were male. The mean age was 39.53 ± 8.89 years. IL-6 concentration, 4.36 and 1.16 pg/ml were determined as cutoff before and after the surgery. Conclusions: The acceptable sensitivity and specificity of IL were obtained in this study. Our findings revealed that IL-6 could be used as a biomarker for predicting postoperative pain relief and disability improvement.
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EC-IC Bypass; Our experience of cerebral revascularization with intraoperative Dual-Image Video Angiography (Diva) p. 499
Girish Joshi, Yasuhiro Yamada, Binoy Damodar Thavara, Riki Tanaka, Kyosuke Miyatini, Kazutaka Nakao, Tsukasa Kawase, Katsumi Takizava, Yoko Kato
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_84_20  
Background: Extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) arterial bypass has been used in the treatment of various cerebrovascular ischemic disease due to atherosclerosis or Moyamoya disease, skull base tumors encasing large IC artery or complex IC aneurysms. Aim: The aim is to analyze surgical technique (EC-IC bypass) and its outcome with intraoperative use of dual image video angiography (DIVA) and Doppler ultrasound. Materials and Methods: We studied in this article a series of 23 patients operated in Banbuntane Hotokukai Hospital, Fujita Health University, for which a superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis was done for steno-occlusive disease, giant IC aneurysm or Moyamoya disease. The study was conducted between 2018 and 2020. We used dual-image video angiography (DIVA) and Doppler ultrasound to assess the luminal patency of anastomosis during the procedure. Results: In this study, three patients presented with Moyamoya disease, 4 had aneurysm, whereas 16 patients presented with the vascular steno-occlusive disease. The patients were divided into three categories (steno-occlusive disease, Moyamoya, and flow replacement for giant aneurysm). Dual image video angiography, along with intraoperative Doppler, helped us in the assessment of luminal patency of the anastomosis. Conclusion: Hemodynamic recovery after cerebrovascular bypass brings about a better outcome in ischemic stroke. The result of surgery improves with proper selection of patients with hemodynamic impairment (in Stage 2). With various modalities such as intraoperative Doppler, DIVA (Dual-image Video Angiography) and improved surgical techniques may aid in the reduction of complications and improve clinical outcome.
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Prospective nonrandomized analytical comparative study of clinicoradiological relationship and quality of life between lumbar interbody fusion and posterolateral lumbar fusion p. 507
Rati Agrawal, Arun Saroha, Vijendra Kumar Jain, Bipin Swarn Walia
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_88_19  
Study Design: This prospective, nonrandomized, analytic comparative study analyzed the outcome of 100 patients who underwent spinal fusion surgeries (Posterolateral fusion (PLF) and posterior lumbar interbody fusion [PLIF]) with 6 months of follow-up. Objective: The aim of our study was to compare clinicoradiological outcome of the lumbar spinal fusion surgeries (PLF vs. PLIF/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion [TLIF]), to assess the quality of life pre- and post-operatively in all patients, and to compare the results within the groups. Summary of Background Data: We retrieved the articles related to posterolateral fusion (PLF) and PLIF/TLIF through computer-assisted PubMed and Cochrane database search. Most of the studies in previous literature did not show any significant difference in the success of fusion between the two groups. However, the global outcome in terms of clinical and radiological parameters was good in all the studies. Materials and Methods: Senior neurosurgeons who are part of the study treated 100 patients presented with degenerative disc disease (DDD). Patients underwent two types of spinal fusion surgeries: Posterolateral fusion (PLF) and PLIF/TLIF, and those two groups were compared for clinicoradiological outcome, successful fusion, and quality of life at 6 months of follow-up. Results were analyzed statistically using SPSS version 21.0 and presented in terms of frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation. Measurements were compared between groups using the Student's t-test (independent and paired) for normally distributed variables. Percentage was compared with Chi-square test in various parameters. Statistical significance was determined with P values; P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Patients aged between 30and 65 years with lumbar DDD who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Patients were operated for 1–3 vertebral levels and showed clinical satisfactory outcome on visual analog scale (P = 0.004) and modified-Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire (Oswestry disability index) (P = 0.000) at 6 months as compared to the preoperative data, which was statistically significant. Radiological outcome in terms of lumbar lordotic angle (LLA, P = 0.000) and ratio of disc space height (DSH) and height of immediate superior vertebral body (P = 0.000) at 3 months of follow-up was also statistically significant. All of our patients showed a well-placed implant (screws and cage) in the follow-up period. Our patients showed successful fusion more in the PLIF group (81.25%) as compared to the PLF group (67.30%), but those results are not statistically significant (P = 0.112), and all of our patients showed statistically significant difference (P = 0.000) in quality of life score at 6 months of follow-up when compared with the preoperative score. Conclusions: We concluded from our study and after the review of literature that the patients with lumbar DDD should undergo spinal instrumentation surgery either PLF or PLIF as per the requirement as these surgeries provide good clinical and radiological outcomes in terms of pain, disability index, LLA, and maintenance of DSH. Although both the groups have few degrees of risks and complications, these are not major one and can be managed easily. The fusion rates are similar in both the groups (PLF and PLIF). Quality of life index showed significant difference within 1 week, after 3 months, and after 6 months of surgery in all of our patients.
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Nerve to the zygomaticus major muscle for facial reanimation surgery: A cadaveric study for branching patterns and axonal count p. 516
Supasid Jirawatnotai, Kitipong Kaewpichai, Wuttipong Tirakotai, Wilaiwan Mothong, Atitaya Kaewsema, Papat Sriswadpong
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_90_20  
Background: In facial reanimation surgery, higher donor facial nerve axonal load yields a superior outcome. Nerves supplying the zygomaticus major muscle are primary donors for the grafting procedure; however, their topography has not been studied in detail. This study identified potential donor nerves by quantifying axon loads of the zygomaticus major muscle through histological analysis of cadaveric specimens. Materials and Methods: Forty-three hemifaces from 26 fresh human cadavers were studied. Branching patterns of nerves were classified according to their shapes. All branches of interest were sectioned and stained for an axon count. The potential donors were mapped into each tributary of nerves supplying the zygomaticus major. Results: Branching patterns were categorized into five types: Y-type (28%), X-type (28%), H-type (19%), E-type (14%), and F-type (11%). The mean number of axons in the most superiorly and proximally located main branches was 1387.33 ± 406.59 in Y-type, 1021.42 ± 187.79 in X-type, 1222.75 ± 193.82 in H-type, 1496.17 ± 364.567 in E-type, and 1353.40 ± 256.07 in F-type (P > 0.05). A topographic relation between facial nerves supplying the zygomaticus major muscle and their mean axonal load was illustrated. The zygomatic/buccal branches were found within 5 mm from Zuker's point in 100% of X-, Y-, H-, and E-type and 75% of F-type specimens. Conclusions: Most proximal facial nerve branches supplying the zygomaticus major, arising at the anterior border of a parotid gland, contained over 900 axons in all five branching types. The primary subbranches may be used in selected cases if donor weakness is a concern. Further, our study provides evidence that demonstrates the precision of Zuker's point.
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Association of bone mineral density, Vitamin D, and serum calcium in intracranial aneurysm p. 521
Achal Sharma, Jitesh Kumar Sharma
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_111_20  
Aims: The objective of this study is to understand the association between bone mineral density (BMD), serum calcium, and Vitamin D in s (IA) patients. Subjects and Methods: A total of 100 patients with IA diagnosed at the department of neurosurgery between January 2019 and December 2019 were reviewed and analyzed in this study. Computed tomography angiography was used to confirm and locate the site of aneurysms. BMD, serum calcium, and Vitamin D levels were measured. Statistical Analysis Used: Linear or logistic regression statistical models were applied to found the association between BMD and IA size. To confirm the statistical significance, P < 0.05 (twos-tailed) was considered as statistically significant. Results: Of the studied 100 patients, 61 patients were female and 39 were male. According to the age group, patients were divided into five categories: below 30, 31–40, 41–50, 51–60, and ≥60 years. The most common site of aneurysm observed to be the anterior communicating artery (Acom); 39.25% of the patients had Acom aneurysm followed by the middle cerebral artery (18.69%). This clearly shows that the occurrence of aneurysm is more prominent in anterior circulation as compared to posterior circulation. The results showed that there is a negative linear correlation between BMD and size of aneurysm (P = 0.00043, r =−0.12). Sex-specific analysis showed that females have lower mean BMD value as compared to males (i.e., females 0.785 ± 0.13; males 0.887 ± 0.13; P = 0.0003). We also found that the multiplicity of IAs also shows an association with BMD (i.e. mean BMD: 0.825 ± 0.14, whereas BMD of patients with multiple aneurysms was 0.747 ± 0.08; P = 0.05). Of 100 patients, 66 were observed calcium deficient (normal range: 8.8–10.2 mg/dl). The obtained mean value of calcium was 8.56 ± 0.859 standard deviation (SD), i.e., below the normal range of calcium. In the case of Vitamin D, 85% of the patients were observed Vitamin D deficient, whereas 14 patients showed Vitamin D insufficiency and merely 1 patient has Vitamin D sufficiency. The mean 25-hydroxy Vitamin D level obtained in our study was 14.57 ± 5.60 (SD), which is considered as Vitamin D deficiency. Conclusions: The size and multiplicity of IA can be associated with BMD, calcium, and Vitamin D. The results from the research provide evidence of common pathophysiology between the development of IA and these factors.
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Endoscopic excision of intraventricular neurocysticercosis cyst with an angiocatheter: A retrospective analysis p. 527
Varun Kumar Aggarwal, Gopal Krishna, Ishwar Singh
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_112_20  
Introduction: An intraventricular cysticercus cyst is observed in 7%–30% patients of neurocysticercosis (NCC). Apart from causing arachnoiditis, intraventricular NCC (IVNCC) can cause sudden death due to acute episodes of hydrocephalus. Various treatment modalities available are external cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion, microsurgical removal, and endoscopic management. There is no consensus regarding the optimal surgical treatment strategy. We are presenting our experience by doing a retrospective analysis of 26 patients having endoscopic removal of IVNCC with a rigid endoscope and angiocatheter. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of neuroendoscopy in restoring the CSF pathway and removal of the cyst in patients of IVNCC. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of clinical record and follow-up of 26 patients of IVNCC who were treated endoscopically between 2010 and 2018 was done. The diagnosis of IVNCC was made based on contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Transcranial endoscopy with 0° endoscope was performed through the frontal burr hole. Third ventriculostomy and removal of the cysticercus cyst with angiocatheter were the procedures done. Results: The success rate of intraventricular cyst excision, whether complete or partial, was 100% (14/14) in the third ventricular cyst, 62.5% (5/8) in the fourth ventricular cyst and 100% (4/4) in the lateral ventricular cyst. The overall success rate of cyst excision by endoscopy was 88.46%. The overall successful CSF flow pathway was established in 88.46% cases. The mean duration of follow-up was 44 months, and all the patients were found symptom free in the follow-up period. Conclusion: Neuroendoscopy, being a single burr hole technique successfully providing internal CSF diversion and cyst removal, is the treatment modality of choice for IVNCC.
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Identification of prognostic factors in surgically treated patients with acute epidural hematoma p. 532
Koki Onodera, Tomoya Kamide, Tatsuki Kimura, Shinya Tabata, Toshiki Ikeda, Yuichiro Kikkawa, Hiroki Kurita
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_129_20  
Context: Only few comprehensive studies have investigated acute epidural hematoma (AEDH), and a low incidence of the lesion has been observed in comparison with other types of traumatic brain injuries such as subdural hematoma, traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, and contusion. Aim: This study aims to identify the prognostic factors of surgically treated AEDH. Settings and Design: The medical records of 58 consecutive patients with surgically treated AEDH between September 2011 and 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Subjects and Methods: All patients were diagnosed with AEDHs using 5-mm-slice computed tomography (CT). Information regarding the following demographic and clinical characteristics was collected: age, sex, antithrombotic drug use, mechanisms of injury, time from onset to operation, neurological examination, vital signs, blood examination, and CT findings. Statistical Analysis Used: We analyzed prognostic factors in patients with AEDH using univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results: Univariate and multivariate regression analyses revealed that age (P < 0.01) and the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS; P < 0.01) were independent predictive factors for good prognosis. In addition, receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis showed that an age of <55 years and a GCS score of >12 were optimal cutoff values for predicting good prognoses, with the areas under the ROC curve of 0.827 and 0.810, respectively. Conclusions: Age and GCS are useful predictors of prognosis in patients with surgically treated AEDH. These findings are appropriate prognostic indicators for urgent surgery performed to treat AEDH and intended to help clinicians make a prompt diagnosis.
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Surgery in high-grade insular tumors: Oncological and seizure outcomes from 41 consecutive patients p. 537
Deepak Khatri, Kuntal Kanti Das, Jaskaran Singh Gosal, Gagandeep Attri, Amanjot Singh, Kamlesh Singh Bhaisora, Anant Mehrotra, Jayesh Sardhara, Pawan Kumar Verma, Arun Kumar Srivastava, Awadhesh Kumar Jaiswal, Sanjay Behari
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_18_20  
Background: Insular high-grade gliomas are uncommon and constitute approximately 10% of all intracranial high-grade gliomas. Several publications in the recent years have thrown substantial light in the understanding of insular low-grade gliomas. However, there is a paucity of information concerning the spectrum of high-grade lesions affecting the insula, the mode of presentation vis-à -vis low-grade gliomas, and the survival rates to modern therapy. Aims and Objectives: We aim to highlight various clinical patterns, histo-pathological spectrum and the survival rates in patients with high-grade insular lesions. Also, we explore the factors that govern favourable outcomes. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 41 patients operated for high-grade insular tumors at our institute between March 2010 to December 2018 was done to evaluate the clinico-radiological features, surgical nuances, survival rates and seizure outcomes. Results: Raised intracranial pressure was the most frequent clinical presentation (n=28/41, 68.3%). Nearly 60% of the patients (n=25) had involvement of all four Berger-Sanai zones. The high-grade tumors encountered in our series were: glioblastoma (n=15), gliosarcoma (n=3), and embryonal tumor, not otherwise specified in 3 patients, while 21 patients had grade 3 astrocytoma. 33 out of 41 patients (80.5%) in our study showed excellent seizure control (ILAE grade 1A) at follow-up. Clinical presentation with seizures (P = 0.01, HR=0.3), WHO grade IV histopathology (P = 0.04, HR=3.7) and development of recurrence (P = 0.05, HR=5.5) were found to be independent predictors of OS. Conclusion: Insular high-grade gliomas are commoner than thought and nearly half of these are grade IV tumors (51%). A presentation with seizures may indicate precursor low-grade gliomas and portend a better survival. A maximum “safe” surgical resection, keeping the postoperative quality of life in mind, should be the goal.
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The correlation between histopathology of herniated lumbar intervertebral disc and clinical findings p. 545
Ahmed Ammar, Ali Alwadei, Ali Al Hayek, Faisal M Alabbas, Faisal Rashed Almatrafi, Mohammed Elshawarby
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_193_20  
Objective: Prolapsed lumbar disc is one of the most frequent diseases, which is usually presented by motor and sensory deficits. Consistency of herniated disc may play a significant role in surgical treatment and postoperative improvement. The objective of this study is to assess whether the histopathological degeneration in the sample of lumbar discs operated on is correlated to clinical variables and surgical outcomes. Materials and Methods: A randomized double-blind prospective study of lumbar disc prolapse cases over a period of 24 months was done. Forty cases were initially included in the study. All the included cases with a scheduled lumbar discectomy in the Department of Neurosurgery, King Fahd University Hospital, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, during this period were examined histologically. Results: Finally, 21 patients were only considered in this study due to loss of follow-up of the other 19 patients; of these 21 patients, 18 were male and 3 were female. The youngest patient was 32 years old, and the oldest was 72 years old. There is no significant correlation between the major histopathological changes of the prolapsed discs and the clinical findings of low back pain (correlation coefficient = 0.058, P < 0.8), duration of sciatica (correlation coefficient = −0.337, P < 0.1), paresthesia (correlation coefficient = 0.111, P < 0.6), motor weakness (correlation coefficient = 0.274, P < 0.2), and reflex (correlation coefficient = 0.081, P < 0.7). Meanwhile, the correlation coefficient between numbness and histopathological degeneration score (HPDS) is not defined because all reported cases were presented with numbness. Conclusions: There is no significant correlation between the histopathological changes of the prolapsed discs and some clinical findings. Moreover, the different types of prolapsed discs' histopathological changes have no impact on the outcome of the surgery. We also concluded that the disc material undergoes certain degenerative processes with age.
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Long-term outcome following three-level stand-alone anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: Is plating necessary? p. 554
Marios Theologou, Theologos Theologou, Nikolaos Skoulios, Maria Mitka, Nikolaos Karanikolas, Antriana Theologou, Eleftheria Georgiou, Slavisa Matejic, Christos Tsonidis
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_196_19  
Background: Anterior cervical discectomy with fusion (ACDF) is a proven method for the treatment of selected patients. The necessity of use of an anterior plate is controversial. The article aims to assess the fusion rates (FRs) and long-term outcomes following three-level ACDF. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from the medical records of patients operated on due to degenerative cervical disease. All patients were treated with three-level ACDF employing polyether ether-ketone cages without anterior plating. Visual analog scale (VAS), neck disability index (NDI), and plain radiographs were used in the clinical and radiological postsurgery assessment. Fusion evaluation was performed according to the <1 mm motion between spinous processes rule. Subsidence was defined as a more than 2 mm decrease in the interbody height. Results: A total of 234 treated levels on 78 patients were assessed. The mean presurgery NDI score was 23.07 ± 4.86, with a mean disability of 46.03% ± 9.64. The mean presurgery VAS score of the neck was 7.58 ± 0.85, while VAS score of the arm was 7.75 ± 1.008. Post surgery, NDI stated no disability, while VAS score of the neck and arm showed no presence of pain. The mean FR was 19.50 ± 21.71 levels per month, with a peak from 3rd to 6th month. Presurgery evaluation showed 12 (15.38%) patients with a high T2 sequence signal. Magnetic resonance imaging screening detected 31 (39.24%) patients with coexisting cervical and lumbar findings. Post surgery, transient dysphagia was reported by 1 patient (1.28%), while subsidence was registered in 15 (6.41%) levels, situated in 12 patients (15.38%), most often at C6-7 (66.6%). Clinical and radiological follow-up extended to 69.47 ± 11.45 months. Conclusion: Multilevel stand-alone ACDF is a safe, cost-effective procedure providing favorable clinical and radiological results with minimal complications. The incidence of subsidence is usually clinically insignificant and can be decreased with a careful surgical technique.
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Outcome and prognostic factors of primary central nervous system lymphoma in Southern Thailand p. 560
Thanya Sopittapan, Thara Tunthanathip, Anukoon Kaewborisutsakul
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_208_20  
Context: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an uncommon type of brain tumor that has an aggressive disease course. Its outcomes, including factor-related outcomes, are therefore not well established in our country. Aims: This study aims to investigate the outcome and prognostic factors in PCNSL patients at our institute. Settings and Design: Retrospective study in a single university hospital. Subjects and Methods: We reviewed consecutive cases of newly diagnosed PCNSL at Prince of Songkla University from 2005 to 2018. The data were collected to evaluate the treatment outcomes and prognostic factors. Statistical Analysis Used: The Kaplan–Meier method for survival analysis, and Cox regression for variable analysis. Results: Eighty-seven patients met the inclusion criteria. Patients were predominantly male, and their mean age was 58.8 ± 11.2 years. Only four patients were infected with HIV. Motor weakness was the most common presentation, and neuroimaging revealed multiple lesions in 56.3% of patients. The patients were divided into four groups according to treatment modality: palliative treatment, whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) alone, chemotherapy (CMT) alone, and combined WBRT and CMT groups. The median overall survival was 7 months. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year survival rates were 29%, 21.5%, and 4.6%, respectively. The age of >60 years was a significant poor prognostic factor. In addition, patients who received combined treatment exhibited the highest survival rate. Conclusions: PCNSL has a low survival rate, even in the present era. Older age is the most substantial factor associated with unfavorable outcomes. The most effective treatment is combined with WBRT and CMT.
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Fate of patients with chronic cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease according to change of cerebral perfusion, cerebrovascular reserved, and incidence of recurrent ischemic stroke p. 566
Dittapong Songsaeng, Athaporn Sriyapai, Ittichai Sakarunchai, Bencharatana Yokubol, Sarun Nanta-aree, Nanthasak Tisavipat
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_223_20  
Objective: The objective is to demonstrate change of cerebral perfusion and cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) in treating patients with cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease stratified by change of cerebral perfusion and CVR. Methods: Retrospective review patients with radiographic proven major cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease whom underwent cerebral perfusion imaging with vasoactive stimuli stress test in Siriraj Hospital and Bangkok General Hospital during 2010–2018. Medical records were also reviewed. Radiographic findings, cerebral perfusion parameters and signal change during the stress test were reviewed and used to categorize into three groups. Results: There were 40 patients sent to radiology department for the evaluation of CVR. One patient had airway problem during the procedure and was excluded. Remaining 39 patients were included in this study (32 males and 7 females, mean age of 54.55 years). In 42 sites involved, 28 (66%) were internal carotid artery, 14 (33%) were middle cerebral arteries. Laterality is left side in 20 cases, right side in 14 cases, and bilateral in 5 cases. Poor CVR response (increased cerebral blood flow <10%) was found in 9 patients (2 severe stenoses and 7 total occlusions). The mean follow-up time was 28.9 months. Eight cases (20.5%) underwent surgical treatment; surgical bypasses and endovascular interventions. Only one patient had subsequential ischemic symptom at immediate postoperative vascular bypass surgery. The remaining patients had no report of progressive or recurrent neurological deficit symptom. Conclusion: Poor CVR response is more often found in higher degree of steno-occlusion. Even inconclusive predicting incidence of recurrent ischemic stroke, CVR that reflects the capacity of neuro-autoregulation.
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Evaluation of cerebellopontine angle epidermoid presenting with cranial nerve deficit: A surgical perspective p. 573
Rahul Singh, Ravi Shankar Prasad, Ashvamedh Singh
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_226_20  
Context: Cerebellopontine angle (CPA) epidermoids are essentially benign tumors, and treatment is complete surgical excision. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical perspective and outcome analysis of CPA epidermoids. Settings and Design: This was a retrospective cohort study. Subjects and Methods: This study includes a cohort of 15 patients operated for CPA epidermoid in the Department of Neurosurgery of Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India, between August 1, 2016, and January 31, 2020. Each patient was evaluated in terms of demographic profile, clinical presentation, surgical management, and postoperative outcome characteristics. Statistical Analysis Used: Unpaired t-test and Chi-square test were used for analysis. Values with P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Statistical tests were done using GraphPad Prism version 8.3.0 software. Results: The mean age was 43 years, with the majority of patients being female (56.5%). The most common cranial nerve (CN) involved was CN VIII (67.7%), followed by CN VII (60%). Persisting CN deficit (P = 0.0118) was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with subtotal resection (STR). Gross-total resection was significantly associated (P < 0.05) to CN VII (P = 0.0233) and VIII (P = 0.0157) recovery. Conclusions: The extent of the tumor excision had no effect on the postoperative morbidity and the risk of recurrence. STR can be considered when there is dense adherence to blood vessels, nerves, or the brain stem to prevent the risk of serious neurological deficits. STR is significantly associated with persisting CN deficit postoperatively. During long-term follow-up, resolution or improvement of neurological deficits may be expected in most patients.
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Randomized trial to compare plasma glucose trends in patients undergoing surgery for supratentorial gliomas under maintenance of sevoflurane, desflurane, and propofol p. 579
Rudrashish Haldar, Ashish Kumar Kannaujia, Ruchi Verma, Himel Mondal, Devendra Gupta, Shashi Srivastava, Anil Agarwal
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_235_20  
Background: Anesthetic agents influence the glycemic response by affecting the neuroendocrine surgical response or directly modifying pancreatic insulin release. Due to chances of neuronal damage, intraoperative hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia both are detrimental for patients undergoing neurosurgeries. Inhalational (sevoflurane and desflurane) and intravenous (propofol) agents have been found to raise intraoperative glucose levels in nonneurological surgeries. Aim: We aimed to compare the intraoperative glucose levels in supratentorial glioma surgeries under the maintenance of three anesthetic agents such as sevoflurane, desflurane, and propofol. Materials and Methods: This randomized trial was conducted with 90 nondiabetic adults with supratentorial glioma. Thirty patients were allocated randomly to the three groups receiving sevoflurane, desflurane, and propofol. Baseline and hourly plasma glucose levels were recorded. Postoperatively, the time required to achieve an Aldrete score of 9 and complications were assessed. Results: Baseline plasma glucose levels were 111.23 ± 11.67, 109.47 ± 19.75, and 111.7 ± 13.88 mg/dL (P = 0.84) in sevoflurance, desflurane, and propofol group, respectively. All of them showed an elevation of plasma glucose in relation to the time of surgery with variable trends. In the 4th and 5th h, the elevations in the inhalational groups (sevoflurane and desflurane) were significantly higher than the propofol group (P = 0.003 and 0.002, respectively). The time for achieving Aldrete's score of 9 was higher in the propofol group (P < 0.0001). No differences were observed in the duration of hospital stay or complications. Conclusions: Maintenance of anesthesia in nondiabetic patients showed clinically modest rise of plasma glucose which is higher in patients under sevoflurane and desflurane than under propofol. However, the immediate recovery was faster with inhalational agents compared to propofol-based anesthesia.
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Magnetic resonance imaging findings of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and cognitive function before and after ventriculoatrial shunt p. 587
Ryota Watahiki, Kenji Onouchi, Toru Machida, Kiyohisa Natsume, Kiyoshi Takagi
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_242_20  
Background: The idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is characterized by the triad of gait impairment, incontinence, and dementia. Cases that do not comply with the diagnostic criteria of ventriculomegaly have increased. It has led to the questions about the current criteria of guidelines. As the number of patients with dementia increases with aging, iNPH is importantly placed as a treatable dementia. The purpose of this study was to verify the validity of radiological diagnostic criteria of ventriculomegaly in iNPH. Materials and Methods: A board-certified neuroradiologist retrospectively examined 80 patients with definite iNPH about magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of Evans index (EI) and disproportionately enlarged subarachnoid space hydrocephalus (DESH). The score of mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was measured to represent the cognitive function. The presurgical score of MMSE (pre-MMSE) and postsurgical best score of MMSE (best-MMSE) were compared statistically between patients dichotomized by either EI >0.3 or DESH. Results: The pre-MMSE was not different regardless of dichotomization by EI >0.3 or DESH. The MMSE score (median) increased significantly (P < 0.0001) by shunt from 20.0 to 26.0 in patients with EI >0.3 and from 21.5 to 25.5 with EI ≤0.3. No difference in the best-MMSE was observed between EI >0.3 and EI ≤0.3. The MMSE score increased significantly (P < 0.0001) by shunt from 21 to 27.5 with DESH and from 20 to 24.5 with non-DESH. Regardless of fulfilling or notfulfilling Japanese radiological diagnostic criteria (combination of EI >0.3 and DESH), cognitive function was significantly (P < 0.0001) improved to the same level. Only 24 cases (30%) fulfilled Japanese radiological diagnostic criteria. Conclusion: Cognitive function of iNPH patients was significantly improved by shunt regardless of MRI-findings. Radiological diagnostic criteria of iNPH may need careful reconsideration.
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Success rate of simple coil embolization in wide-neck aneurysm with aneurysmal shoulder p. 594
Payothorn Decharin, Anchalee Churojana, Thaweesak Aurboonyawat, Ekawut Chankaew, Dittapong Songsaeng, Boonrerk Sangpetngam, Pattarawit Withayasuk
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_248_20  
Background and Objective: Wide-necked intracranial aneurysm (WIA) is one of the challenging diseases for neuro-interventionist to treat by simple coiling technique. The purpose of this study is to identify the morphology associated with successful simple coil embolization in wide neck aneurysm patients. Materials and Methods: Between January 2002 and August 2018, 102 patients with total 115 ruptured or unruptured WIA which received endovascular treatment were retrospective reviewed. Data were analyzed including demographics, aneurysm morphology, endovascular technique, angiographic outcome, complication, regrowth, and retreatment rate. Results: The mean age of patients was 61.6 years with female predominant (72.5%). Ruptured WIA was diagnosed in 71 patients (61.7%). Majority of aneurysms were located in an anterior circulation which were 74 cases (64.3%), mainly paraclinoid aneurysm (30/115). Endovascular treatment was successful in 113 cases (98.3%) which can be mainly divided into simple coil embolization 50 cases (43.5%), balloon-assisted coil embolization 26 cases (22.6%), and stent-assisted coil embolization 32 cases (27.8%). Complete, subtotal, and incomplete occlusion of WIA was achieved in 32 cases (27.8%), 62 cases (53.9%), and 18 cases (15.7%), respectively. There was 9.6% complication occurred. Regrowth and retreatment were found 20% and 15.7%, respectively. Conclusion: WIA with two-sided aneurysmal shoulder or neck width <3.6 mm. are significantly associated with successful coil embolization using simple coiling technique.
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A practice survey to compare and identify the usefulness of neuroendoscope and exoscope in the current neurosurgery practice p. 601
Sunil Panchal, Yasuhiro Yamada, Tetsuya Nagatani, Tadashi Watanabe, Yugo Kishida, Ahmed Sayah, Yoko Kato
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_339_19  
Background: The present era is of new tools and technique. Handling of new challenges require, better understanding of microscopic anatomy, which requires better magnification and light. Microscope has played significant role in this, use of endoscope and introduction of exoscope have given new dimensions to this field. Aim: This study aims to compare and see the advantages, disadvantages of endoscope with exoscope, will analyze the difference in terms of ergonomics, learning curve, opportunities for training, operating time, magnification, and image quality. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Neurosurgery, Bantane Hospital Fujita Health University, Japan. Apart from comparing the specifications of available systems, we conducted a worldwide survey of the two systems through sending questionnaire through mail collected responses and analyzed them. Results: Learning curve, magnification, image quality, and ergonomics favors exoscope but depth perception and maneuverability, hand eye coordination, tactile sensation, and usage of different angulation tubes favored endoscope to be superior to exoscope. Conclusion: There is more scope for modifications and research in both the instruments. These instruments are not replacement of either and should be used according to their indications.
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Comparison of ketofol (combination of ketamine and propofol) and propofol anesthesia in aneurysmal clipping surgery: A prospective randomized control trial p. 608
Ajit Bhardwaj, Nidhi Panda, Rajeev Chauhan, Summit Dev Bloria, Neerja Bharti, Hemant Bhagat, Vishwanath Bhaire, Ankur Luthra, Rajesh Chhabra, Shalvi Mahajan
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_346_19  
Background: The maintenance of hemodynamic stability is of pivotal importance in aneurysm surgeries. While administering anesthesia in these patients, the fluctuations in blood pressure may directly affect transmural pressure, thereby precipitating rupture of aneurysm and various other associated complications. We aimed to compare the effects of ketofol with propofol alone when used as an induction and maintenance anesthetic agent during surgical clipping of intracranial aneurysms. Materials and Methods: Forty adult, good-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients posted for aneurysm neck clipping were included in the study. The patients were randomized into two groups. One group received a combination of ketamine and propofol (1:5 ratio) and the other group received propofol for induction and maintenance of anesthesia. Intraoperative hemodynamic stability, intraventricular pressure, and quality of brain relaxation were studied in both the groups. Results: The patients were comparable with respect to demographic profile, Hunt and Hess grade, world federation of neurological surgeons (WFNS) grade, Fisher grade, duration of anesthesia, duration of surgery, optic nerve sheath diameter, and baseline hemoglobin. Intraoperative hemodynamics were better maintained in the ketofol group during induction, with only 15% of patients having >20% fall in mean arterial pressure (from baseline) intraoperatively, compared to 45% of patients receiving propofol alone (P = 0.038). The mean intraventricular pressure values in both the groups were in the normal range and the quality of brain relaxation was similar, with no significant difference (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Ketofol combination (1:5) as compared to propofol alone provides better hemodynamic stability on induction as well as maintenance anesthesia without causing an increase in intracranial pressure. Effect of ketofol on cerebral oxygenation and quality of emergence need to be evaluated further by larger multicentric, randomized control trials.
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Comparison of propofol and sevoflurane on cerebral oxygenation using juglar venous oximetery (SjVo2) in patients undergoing surgery for traumatic brain injury p. 614
Rajeev Chauhan, Nidhi Panda, Hemant Bhagat, Neerja Bharti, Ankur Luthra, Shiv Lal Soni, Narender Kaloria, Praveen Salunke, Vishwanath Bhaire, Summit Dev Bloria
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_348_19  
Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces major insult to the normal cerebral physiology. The anesthetic agents may infrequently produce deleterious effects and further aggravate damage to the injured brain. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of propofol and sevoflurane on cerebral oxygenation, brain relaxation, systemic hemodynamic parameters and levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in patients with severe TBI undergoing decompressive craniectomy. Methods: A prospective randomized comparative study was conducted on 42 patients undergoing surgery for severe TBI. Patients were randomized into two groups, Group P received propofol and Group S received sevoflurane for maintenance of anesthesia. All patients were induced with fentanyl, propofol, and vecuronium. The effect of these agents on cerebral oxygenation was assessed by jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjVO2). Hemodynamic changes and quality of intraoperative brain relaxation were also assessed. The serum levels of IL-6 were quantitated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Results: SjVO2 values were comparable and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was found to be significantly lower in Group P as compared to those in Group S (P < 0.05). Brain relaxation scores were comparable between the groups. The level of IL-6 decreased significantly at the end of surgery compared to baseline in patients receiving sevoflurane (P = 0.040). Conclusions: Cerebral oxygenation measured by SjVO2 was comparable when anesthesia was maintained with propofol or sevoflurane. However, significant reduction in MAP by propofol needs attention in patients with severe TBI. The decrease in IL-6 level reflects anti-inflammatory effect and probable neuroprotective potential of propofol and sevoflurane.
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The exchange-free technique: A novel technique for enhancing surpass flow diverter placement p. 620
Osman Ocal, Anıl Arat
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_374_19  
Background: Following flow diverter placement, approximately 20% of intracranial aneurysms remain as residual aneurysms at 1 year. Device malapposition is a cause of residual aneurysms after flow diversion. We present a new and straightforward technique (exchange-free technique [EFT]) to enhance apposition of the surpass flow diverter (SFD), the only over-the-wire flow diverter currently available. Materials and Methods: We deployed laser-cut mini stents through the inner deployment catheter of the SFD. This maneuver was performed simply by withdrawing the micro-guidewire from its lumen and replacing it with a mini-stent (stents deliverable through microcatheters with inner diameter of 0.0165 inches), without a need to re-cross the deployed SFD or an exchange maneuver. All aneurysms in which this technique was utilized were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Twenty-eight patients (20 females) with 30 treated aneurysms were identified. The mean aneurysm diameter was 10.2 ± 6.6 mm. Technical success rate was 96.6% (29/30 aneurysms). There was no mortality or permanent morbidity related to the procedures. Except for the patient treated for an iatrogenic, surgery-related internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm who died secondary to consequences of multiple surgeries, no cases of mortality or permanent morbidity were noted. Complete aneurysm occlusion rates were 78.2%, 82.1%, and 95.2% at 0–3, 3–6, and 9–12 months, respectively. None of the patients were re-treated. Conclusion: EFT is a simple and fast technique which was not associated with adverse effects in our series. The higher aneurysm obliteration rate obtained with EFT is probably the result of better wall apposition of the SFD.
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Traumatic brain injury in Mumbai: A survey of providers along the care continuum p. 627
Saksham Gupta, Monty Khajanchi, Harris Solomon, Nakul P Raykar, Blake C Alkire, Nobhojit Roy, Kee B Park, Vineet Kumar
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_4_20  
Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a significant burden of a global disease, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) such as India. Efforts to curb the impact of TBI require an appreciation of local factors related to this disease and its treatment. Methods: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were administered to paramedics, anesthesiologists, general surgeons, and neurosurgeons in locations throughout Mumbai from April to May 2018. A thematic analysis with an iterative coding was used to analyze the data. The primary objective was to identify provider-perceived themes related to TBI care in Mumbai. Results: A total of 50 participants were interviewed, including 17 paramedics, 15 anesthesiologists, 9 general surgeons, and 9 neurosurgeons who were involved in caring for TBI patients. The majority of physicians interviewed discussed their experiences in public sector hospitals (82%), while 12% discussed private sector hospitals and 6% discussed both. Four major themes emerged: Workforce, equipment, financing care, and the family and public role. These themes were often discussed in the context of their effects on increasing or decreasing complications and delays. Participants developed adaptations when managing shortcomings in these thematic areas. These adaptations included teamwork during workforce shortages and resource allocation when equipment was limited among others. Conclusions: Workforce, equipment, financing care, and the family and public role were identified as major themes in the care for TBI in Mumbai. These thematic elements provide a framework to evaluate and improve care along the care spectrum for TBI. Similar frameworks should be adapted to local contexts in urbanizing cities in LMICs.
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Protocol-based early decompressive craniectomy in a resource-constrained environment: A tertiary care hospital experience p. 634
Sanjeev Pattankar, Basant Kumar Misra
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_41_20  
Objectives: Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is an emergency life-saving procedure used to treat refractory intracranial hypertension (RICH). The authors aim to analyze their experience with protocol-based early DC (<24 h) in RICH cases diagnosed based on clinical and radiological evidence, without preoperative intracranial pressure monitoring done over 10 years. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective, observational study which includes 58 consecutive patients who underwent protocol-based early DC by the senior author at a single institution between 2007 and 2017. Background variables and outcome in the form of Glasgow Outcome Score-Extended (GOS-E) at 6 months and 1 year were analyzed. Results: Fourteen patients had traumatic brain injury (TBI), 17 had intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), 14 had malignant cerebral infarcts (MCI), and the reminder 13 patients had other causes. At 6 months, the mortality rate was 22.4%. Good recovery, moderate disability, and severe disability were seen in 13.8%, 17.2%, and 43.1% of patients, respectively. Two patients were in vegetative state. The cutoff for favorable/unfavorable outcome was defined as GOS-E 4–8/1–3. By this application, 63.8% of patients had favorable outcome at 6 months. The favorable outcome in patients of TBI, ICH, and MCI was 57.1%, 58.8%, and 85.7%, respectively. Conclusions: DC helps in obtaining a favorable outcome in selected patients with a defined pathology. The diagnosis of RICH based on clinical and radiological parameters, and protocol-based early DC, is reasonably justified as the way forward for resource-constrained environments. The risk of vegetative state is small.
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Analysis of the surgical outcome of unruptured intracranial saccular aneurysms in octogenarians (80–89 Years) p. 640
Binoy Damodar Thavara, Yasuhiro Yamada, Girish Joshi, Riki Tanaka, Kyosuke Miyatani, Gowtham Devareddy, Kazutaka Nakao, Tsukasa Kawase, Yoko Kato
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_44_20  
Background: The prevalence of unruptured intracranial aneurysms is increasing in elderly population in Japan. Octogenarians (80–89 years) are more prone to complications due to increased age, comorbidities, increased risk of vasospasm, and treatment risks. Aim: The aim is to study the surgical outcome of unruptured intracranial saccular aneurysms in elderly patients aged between 80 and 89 years. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted involving all the cases of unruptured intracranial saccular aneurysms operated surgically in elderly patients aged between 80 and 89 years. All the cases operated between January 2017 and October 2019 were included in the study. The preoperative neurological status was assessed using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). The comorbidities and risk factors involved were assessed. Postoperative neurological status was assessed by (1) postoperative GCS score and by the (2) presence or absence of the motor weakness of limbs. Results: Thirty-three aneurysms were operated in 27 patients. Two patients were operated two times at separate occasions for different aneurysms during the study period and hence making a total of 29 surgeries. The age range was 80–88 years, with a mean of 82.4 years ± 2.64 standard deviation (SD). There were 7 (24.1%) males and 22 (75.86%) females. All the patients had a preoperative GCS score of 15/15 without focal neurological deficit. The mean size (mm) of the aneurysms was 6.57 ± 4.04 SD. There were 31 (93.94%) aneurysms in the anterior circulation and 2 (6.06%) aneurysms in the posterior circulation. The comorbidities and risk factors were analyzed and found to be not influencing the outcome of the patients. Clipping was done in 32 aneurysms. One case of posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysm underwent occipital artery to PICA bypass surgery. The postoperative complications include chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) in 7 (24.13%) patients, extradural hematoma in 1 (3.4%), meningitis in 1 (3.4%), and lower cranial nerve palsy in 1 (3.4%) patient. All the patients were discharged with GCS score 15/15 without motor weakness of the limbs. The mean duration of stay was 16.62 days ± 9.98 SD. Conclusion: Surgery for unruptured saccular aneurysms in octogenarians has got a good result in the tertiary care facility. Advanced age alone should not be considered for preferring coiling over clipping. Octogenarians are more prone to developing postoperative CSDH.
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Incidence and outcome analysis of vertebral artery injury in posttraumatic cervical spine p. 644
Tushar Rathod, Vinayak Garje, Nandan Marathe, Shubranshu Mohanty, Chetan Shende, Abhinav Jogani, Abhinav Kumar Srivastava
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_45_20  
Objective: Vertebral artery injury (VAI) after cervical spine trauma often remains undiagnosed. Despite various clinical studies suggesting simultaneous occurrence of VAI with cervical spine trauma, guidelines regarding screening and management of posttraumatic VAI are yet to be formulated. The primary objective of the current study was to formulate a low-cost screening protocol for posttraumatic VAI, thereby reducing the incidence of missed VAI in developing countries. Materials and Methods: This was a single-center prospective study performed on 61 patients using plain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a screening tool to assess the frequency of VAI and routine X-ray to detect morphological fracture patterns associated with the VAI in posttraumatic cervical spine cases. If the MRI study showed any evidence of vascular disruption, then further investigation in the form of computed tomography angiography was done to confirm the diagnosis. Results: This study showed the incidence of VAI was 14.75% (9/61). Of 61 patients, 16 had supraaxial, and 45 patients sustained subaxial cervical spine fractures. In the cohort of nine cases of VAI, eight patients had subaxial cervical spine injuries, of which seven were due to flexion-distraction injury. C5–C6 flexion-distraction injury was most commonly associated with VAI (4 cases). Of the nine cases, five succumbed to injury (mortality 55.55%), and 19 patients from the non-VAI group succumbed to injury (mortality 36.53%). From surviving four cases with VAI, two had improvement in the American Spinal Injury Association scale by Grade 1. Conclusion: VAI in cervical spine trauma is an underrecognized phenomenon. Plain MRI axial imaging sequence can be an instrumental low-cost screening tool in resource-deficient parts of the world. VAI has tendency to occur with high-velocity trauma like bi-facetal dislocation, which has a high mortality and poor neurological recovery.
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Outcome analysis of anterior reconstruction with rib grafts in tuberculosis of the thoracic spine p. 648
Sudhir Kumar Srivastava, Nandan A Marathe, Sunil K Bhosale, Aditya Raj, Shaligram Purohit, Ashraf Shaikh, Kiran Dhole
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_52_20  
Introduction: Tricortical iliac bone is the gold standard as an autograft for the reconstruction of the anterior column in tuberculosis (TB) of the thoracic spine. However, the quantity of graft needed is significant. It creates a considerable defect in the pelvic bone, causing graft site complications, including pain, pelvic instability, fractured ilium, herniated muscle, or abdominal contents. To prevent these donor site morbidities, ribs that were removed during the versatile approach were used for anterior reconstruction. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and radiological results of the reconstruction of the anterior column of the spine with the help of an excised rib during the versatile approach. Subjects and Methods: This retrospective study was undertaken at a tertiary care center with a study duration of 14 years. Between January 2004 and December 2016, 52 patients with thoracic Koch's spine had anterior column reconstructed with multiple rib grafts. A single surgeon performed all operations. Indications for the surgery in these patients were the presence of neurologic deficit (49 patients) and vertebral column instability (3 patients). The preoperative kyphosis angle and visual analog scale (VAS) score were compared with postoperative values using a paired t-test. Results: All patients underwent a minimum follow-up of 18 months and were evaluated clinicoradiologically. Good bony fusion with neurological recovery was achieved in all cases. The VAS score for back pain improved significantly postsurgery. There was one case of graft buckling treated conservatively. Discussion: Appropriate anterior reconstruction forms the cornerstone of successful surgical management of spinal TB. The “Versatile approach” used offers anterior and posterior access in the lateral position. In these patients, we obviated the need for iliac crest graft using multiple segments of the rib for anterior column reconstruction. This meticulous rib grafting technique gives good functional outcome in terms of solid bony fusion. Conclusion: Meticulous rib grafting technique gives 360° bony fusion and good functional outcome in surgery for thoracic spinal TB. It has the advantage of avoiding the complications associated with a tricortical iliac crest graft.
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Closure of skull base defects after endonasal endoscopic resection of planum sphenoidale and tuberculum sellae meningiomas p. 653
Ricardo Landini Lutaif Dolci, Williams Escalante Encinas, Amanda André Monteiro, Jeniffer Cristina Kozechen Rickli, Jamile Lopes de Souza, Alexandre Bossi Todeschini, Igor Gomes Padilha, Henrique Bortot Zuppani, Américo Rubens Leite dos Santos, Paulo Roberto Lazarini
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_62_20  
Background: The expanded endoscopic endonasal transplanum transtuberculum approach allows tumor removal by minimally invasive procedures. A large dural and bone defect is created during the surgical procedure, increasing the risk of postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. Objective: The aim of this study is to describe a surgical technique and complications observed in patients undergoing endonasal resection of planum sphenoidale and/or tuberculum sellae meningiomas. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed of patients with planum sphenoidale and/or tuberculum sellae meningiomas after expanded endoscopic endonasal resection between June 2013 and August 2018, in which autologous grafts, fascia lata inlay, and nasoseptal flap onlay were used for closure of skull base defects. Results: Ten patients were included in the analysis. No cases of postoperative CSF leakages or meningitis were reported, whereas two patients evolved with postoperative infectious complications (fungal ball in right frontal sinus and brain abscess). The skull base defect created for resection measured, on average, 3.58 cm2. Conclusion: Our experience suggests that closure of skull base defects using combined fascia lata inlay and nasoseptal flap onlay is effective for preventing postoperative CSF leakage in resection of planum sphenoidale and/or tuberculum sellae meningiomas, and offers high reproducibility due to its low cost.
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TECHNICAL NOTE Top

Translamina terminalis approach to the hypothalamus using supraorbital craniotomy: Technical note and comparison with other surgical corridors p. 660
Mohammed M M Alhoobi, Adnan Khan, Fatma Faris Abu-Qadous, Ralf Kockro, Firas Hammadi, Raed Abu Jarir, Sirajeddin Belkhair, Ali Ayyad
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_29_20  
Objectives: Approaches to the hypothalamus and anterior third ventricle are variable. We present a technical note on access of the hypothalamus using the trans-lamina terminalis approach by supraorbital craniotomy in a patient who had a hypothalamic cavernoma and presented to us with recurrent hemorrhage. Patients and methods: The trans-lamina terminalis approach, including anatomical landmarks and surgical steps through a supra-orbital craniotomy, is described and a comparison with other surgical corridors is discussed. Results: The supraorbital trans lamina terminalis approach allowed an effective access to the hypothalamic lesions. This approach provided a safe and minimally invasive corridor for gross total resection of the lesion since trespass of viable brain tissue is avoided. One clinical case illustrates the feasibility of the approach allowing complete removal of a cavernoma without surgery related neurological of endocrinological deficits. Conclusions: The supra-orbital craniotomy for trans-lamina terminalis approach is a valid surgical choice for hypothalamic lesions. The major strengths of this approach include minimal brain retraction and direct end-on view; however, the long and narrow surgical corridor requires some technical familiarization. The clinical outcomes are comparable to other surgical corridors.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Varicella-zoster radiculitis mimicking sciatica: A diagnostic dilemma p. 666
Abhinandan Reddy Mallepally, Rajat Mahajan, Tarush Rustagi, Nandan Amrit Marathe, Harvinder Singh Chhabra
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_75_20  
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) presenting as a radicular pain in the thoracic region is not uncommon, but the presentation in the lumbar and thigh region is not frequently seen. Characteristic segmental vesicular–bullous rash in a dermatomal distribution associated with pain and allodynia is a prominent feature. The pain appears before rash. It is not uncommon for clinicians to misdiagnose radicular pain caused by VZV due to prolapsed disc. We report two patients who presented to us with complaints of back pain with leg radiculopathy that were initially treated for discogenic radiculopathy and rash was wrongly attributed to hot fomentation. This case report emphasizes the importance of including varicella-zoster radiculitis in the differential diagnosis of radicular pain and clinical examination of every rash. Physical examination is must if the patient complains of rash. Appropriate and timely diagnosis can prevent unnecessary investigations.
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A rare case of giant intradiploeic epidermal cyst of the frontal bone with intracranial extension p. 670
Akhil Mohan, Chandramohan Unni, Prakasan Kannoth, Rajeev Mandaka Parambil
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_78_20  
Calvarial intradiploeic epidermal cyst are very rare neoplasms which can have intracranial extension. These cysts can attain a large size and can cause lytic destruction of the calvarium resembling malignancy. Since these lesions are benign complete excision is curative. We report the case of a 77-year-old male patient who presented with a large swelling on the forehead. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed an expansile lytic lesion with intracranial extension. Complete excision of the lesion with cranioplasty was done. Histopathology was consistent with the epidermal cyst. These cysts attaining gigantic proportions are very few in literature.
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Missing disc fragment: A rare surgical experience p. 674
Abhinandan Reddy Mallepally, Amrit Gantaguru, Nandan Marathe, Sanjay Kumar Meena, Vikas Tandon
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_79_20  
About 35%–72% of lumbar disc herniations are associated with fragment migration. However, the posterior epidural migration is rare. We present a strange situation encountered during surgical decompression of the posterior migrated fragment. A 72-year-old male presented with a history of pain radiating to the left lower limb and Grade 3 power of the extensor hallucis longus. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a prolapsed intervertebral disc and a possible posterior epidural migration of disc fragment. Routine surgical steps for microdiscectomy were followed after confirmation of level using fluoroscopy. However, the extruded disc fragment was not seen, and both exiting and traversing roots were free with adequate mobility. After extensively searching for a disc in the spinal canal, suction fluid was filtered through a surgical mop used as a sieve. Material collected was sent for histopathological study. Biopsy report confirmed material filtered was indeed the intervertebral disc. Thus, accidental suction of disc material in case of the posterior epidural migrated disc is a possibility, and we should be vigilant about this scenario to avoid disaster.
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High-flow bypass with radial artery graft for cavernous carotid aneurysm p. 678
Ambuj Kumar, Raghavendra Kumar Sharma, Riki Tanaka, Yashuhiro Yamada, Katsumi Takizawa, Yoko Kato
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_82_20  
Cavernous carotid aneurysms can be managed by different surgical as well as endovascular methods. The aim of treatment is to exclude the aneurysm from circulation and maintain normal cerebral blood flow. We are reporting a case of incidentally detected CCA managed by high flow bypass with radial artery graft. We discuss the surgical technique and nuances of high flow bypass surgery.
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Cisplatin-related cerebral infarction in carcinoma of the external auditory canal p. 683
Makoto Kadowaki, Yoshinobu Kamio, Hisaya Hiramatsu, Hiroki Namba
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_83_20  
Background: Despite the known association between cisplatin and vascular toxicity, the mechanism of cisplatin-associated cerebral infarction, a relatively rare complication, remains unclear. We describe an investigation of potential biomarkers that could facilitate the early detection of this complication in a relevant case. Case Description: A 59-year-old male diagnosed with stage III carcinoma of the external auditory canal underwent cisplatin chemotherapy. Seven days after the last dose, he presented with a disturbance of consciousness due to basilar artery occlusion, which was associated with chemotherapy administration. The patient recovered consciousness after thrombectomy. Interestingly, an increase in serum von Willebrand factor (vWf) activity was observed. The vWf activity level gradually normalized 5 months after cisplatin administration. Conclusions: Endothelial injuries could be responsible for cisplatin-associated cerebral infarction. Moreover, a cisplatin-induced cerebral infarction increase in serum vWf activity, which indicates endothelial injury, suggests that this molecule might be a useful biomarker for predicting cisplatin-associated cerebral infarction.
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Intracranial, extradural, hemangiopericytoma in a neonate p. 686
Akash Bihari Pati, Santosh Kumar Mahalik, Suvradeep Mitra, Suprava Naik, Kanishka Das
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_94_20  
Intracranial infantile hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is a rare, sparsely documented neoplasm with a relatively favorable prognosis than its adult counterpart. We describe a neonatal extradural, intracranial, infantile HPC managed with near-total excision.
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One-stage posterior only corpectomy and fusion in the treatment of a unique acute low lumbar L4 burst fracture without neurologic deficit: A case presentation p. 691
Kaveh Haddadi, Seyed Mostafa Hosseini, Aliakbar Khadem, Mohammad Bagher Hashemian
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_115_20  
L4 and L5 fractures are different from those at the thoracolumbar area. These differences include anatomy, biomechanics, classification, and treatment possibilities. Given the accessible literature and lack of high-quality information about the management of low lumbar fractures, we describe the case of a young 26-year-old male was referred to our emergency medical center with a severe L4 vertebral body comminuted burst fracture with complete spinal canal compression (AO type 4). Incredible, all neurological functions were intact initially. The patient was cured through a one-stage posterior only vertebrectomy and fusion with preservation of all neurological functions. Clinical and radiologic follow-up was satisfactory after 2 years. In more severe lumbar injuries, decisions contain spinal decompression and stabilization through a posterior or anterior approach based on the surgeon's favorite. In our experience in this patient, a posterior approach only was used both for decompression and stabilization without routine challenging existing in anterior approaches.
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Extraaxial cerebellopontine angle medulloblastoma with multiple intracranial metastases in adult: A rare case report with a review of literature p. 695
Saraj Kumar Singh, Niraj Kumar
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_120_20  
Medulloblastoma (MB) is very rare malignant primary brain tumor in adults and its location at cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is even rarer. There are only few case reports of CPA MBs in literature. Most of them are reported in pediatric age groups which are mostly intraaxial. Only 11 cases of extra-axial CPA MBs have been reported so far. The author is reporting a very rare case of adult extra-axial CPA MBs with multiple intracranial metastases. We are also reviewing clinical and radiological features and unusual way of its presentation along with surgical management. Keeping MBs as one of the differential diagnosis for extra-axial CPA tumors is going to increase our spectrum of diagnosis which can lead to alteration in management.
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A rare case of an aneurysmal bone cyst of the temporal bone p. 699
Sarang Gotecha, Prashant Punia, Ashish Chugh, Anil Patil, Dushyant Kashyap, Vybhav Raghu, Shobhit Chhabra, Ankit Patel, Megha Kotecha
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_125_19  
Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are benign bone lesions mainly occurring at the metaphyseal end of long bones and are a rarity in the calvarium. The reported incidence of this lesion in the skull is 1% of all the ABC. It is a benign condition that may extend intracranially. We report here a case of a 3½-year-old male child who presented with a bony hard, painless, and gradually enlarging swelling over his right temporal region. Radiological investigations and histology revealed that the lesion was an ABC. A total surgical excision was achieved despite its intracranial extension along with the involvement of dura. Prognosis is excellent with total removal as a total surgical removal of the lesion is considered curative. The rarity of the lesion along with a good surgical result despite an intracranial extension with dural involvement prompted this report.
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Cervical spinal fracture in a patient with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis having a history of cervical laminoplasty p. 703
Takeshi Sasagawa
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_125_20  
An 87-year-old male having a history of C3–7 open-door cervical laminoplasty 20 years ago fell and sustained neck pain and paralysis with complete motor and sensory deficits below C6 (Frankel A). Computed tomography (CT) revealed ankylosis from C2 to C7 due to diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and a C5/6 fracture with C5 posterior displacement. We performed surgery the day after injury using a posterior approach for stabilization of the spinal column from C3 to T1. Translaminar screws (LS) were placed to the right (hinge side) of C3–7, lateral mass screws (LMS) to the left (open side) of C3–6, and pedicle screws to the left of C7 and bilaterally in T1. Bony fusion was achieved as seen on CT images 6 months after surgery. We conclude that long posterior stabilization using LMS and LS is an effective treatment for cervical fracture in patients with DISH having a history of cervical laminoplasty.
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Tenecteplase-induced nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in a patient with acute ischemic stroke: A case report and literature review p. 706
Biplab Das, Anshu Mahajan, Gaurav Goel, Arun Garg
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_131_20  
Recently, tenecteplase (TNK) has been used for intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Although spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) following thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator has been reported, there is a lack of literature regarding TNK-induced nonaneurysmal spontaneous SAH. Our index case received intravenous TNK within an hour of symptom onset of AIS. Following deterioration of sensorium, repeat noncontrast computed tomography was performed, which showed diffuse SAH. Cerebral angiography did not reveal any aneurysm. Nonaneurysmal SAH can be a complication of TNK thrombolysis, which is not reported in literature. Knowledge of this possible adverse reaction is critical for appropriate counseling and management.
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A rare case of hemorrhagic melanotic schwannoma in a 38-year-old female p. 709
Rakesh Danny Biju, Maria Duignan, Monish Maharaj, Fouzia Ziad, Zakier Hussain
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_142_20  
Melanotic schwannoma is a rare form of nerve sheath tumor composed of melanin-producing neoplastic Schwann cells. Less than 200 cases have been reported worldwide. The entity has been associated with Carney complex, a rare genetic disorder characterized by multiple benign tumors. A 38-year-old female presented to our unit with sudden-onset lower back pain and radiculopathy triggered by a mechanical injury. Imaging demonstrated a lesion within the left L5/S1 neural exit foramen with remodeling of bony architecture typical of a chronic, benign process. She proceeded for resection and histology revealed a psammomatous melanotic schwannoma. The patient recovered well with improvement in symptomology. Due to the aggressive nature of the disease, she remains under surveillance for local recurrence and distant metastasis. Clinicians should be aware of this malignant entity, despite its possible presentation with radiological features of a chronic, benign process. Unusual characteristics such as hemorrhage should be treated with a high index of suspicion.
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Largest intracranial calcified hydatid cyst: A case report with review of literature p. 713
Vivek Mahesh Agrawal, Pramod Janardan Giri
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_143_20  
Cerebral hydatid disease is a peculiar manifestation of echinococcosis, an infection acquired from Echinococcus tapeworm, in its larval stage. It symbolizes only 2% of all the cerebral space occupying lesions. It is frequently observed in children and young adults. In this paper, we report an exceptional case of intracranial solitary calcified hydatid cyst in a 25 year old male, shepherd by occupation, presenting with history of difficulty in walking and convulsions for the last 20 years. Craniotomy was carried out and an intact calcified mass weighing around 300 grams was excised. It is the largest intracranial calcified hydatid cyst excised till date and is first of its kind.
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Acute ischemic stroke due to internal carotid artery dissection in a 10-year-old child p. 716
Saori Otake, Yosuke Tajima, Michihiro Hayasaka, Tomohiro Sugiyama
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_146_20  
A 10-year-old girl was transferred to our hospital with left hemiparesis. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed a signal lesion in the right posterior limb of the internal capsule and magnetic resonance angiography showed poor visualization of the right internal carotid artery (ICA), and a defect area was present in a part of the supraclinoid portion of the right ICA. Based on the clinical and radiological findings, the patient was diagnosed with ischemic stroke due to right ICA dissection (ICAD). She received 5 days of intravenous argatroban followed by oral aspirin. A month later, her hemiparesis markedly improved. As early diagnosis of ICAD is crucial for prompt treatment in children with unexplained gross neurologic abnormalities, this disease should be suspected and MRI should be performed even without a history of blunt trauma to the head and neck.
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An anterior dislocation after Mobi-C cervical disc arthroplasty p. 719
Yann Pelletier, Olivier Gille, Jean-Marc Vital
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_147_20  
The objective is to report a case of an early dislocation of Mobi-C prosthesis used for the replacement of C4–C5 disc. A 57-year-old man who was operated 17 years before for C6–C7 fusion complained of cervicalgia associated with bilateral but predominantly right-sided brachialgia. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated central and foraminal stenosis in the C5–C6 segment and soft medial disc herniation in the C4–C5 segment. The patient was indicated for the placement of a cervical disc prosthesis C4–C5 and a C5–C6 arthrodesis. After 1 month of clinical improvement, the patient saw his pain reappearing as well as the presence of dysphagia not objectified before. The patient did not describe a traumatic context. The radiographic assessment showed an anterior dislocation of the prosthesis. The patient was reoperated, the prosthesis was removed, and cervical arthrodesis with iliac graft was performed. Although rare, this complication must be well known by surgeons performing cervical arthroplasty.
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Primary intracranial squamous cell carcinoma with a fatal course p. 722
Patrizia Pisano, Francesco Lombardi, Daniele Bongetta, Giuseppe La Rocca, Giuseppe Maria Della Pepa, Cesare Zoia
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_148_20  
Intracranial squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are extremely rare. They can be primary or represent a degeneration of an epidermoid cyst (EC). We report the case of a patient operated, with an endoscopic transnasal approach, for a primary intracranial SCC. The optimal management for patients with primary intracranial SCC or ECs which have undergone malignant degeneration has yet to be identified.
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Parent vessel occlusion via the balloon-assisted, dual microcatheter technique p. 726
Gregory Glauser, Brian Patrick Walcott, Omar Aftab Choudhri
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_153_20  
Endovascular parent vessel sacrifice is an established technique used to treat vascular pathology and tumor infiltration of blood vessels. In high-flow vessels, such as the carotid artery or vertebral artery, distal coil migration and embolization are concerns. A method to mitigate this risk would improve the safety profile of the procedure. Five patients undergoing parent vessel sacrifice were retrospectively identified (from June 2018 to May 2019) for the purpose of illustrating this high-flow parent vessel occlusion technique. The technique utilizes a proximal dual-lumen balloon microcatheter inflated for blood flow arrest. The balloon-assisted, dual microcatheter technique is useful for occlusion of high-flow parent arteries. Because it utilizes both flow arrest and a tethered coil backstop, precise occlusion of a vessel can be achieved.
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Spinal epidural abscess post spinal anesthesia: An uncommon complication of a common procedure p. 730
Jeevesh Mallik, Vanita Motiani, Manish Ganesh Pai
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_154_20  
Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a severe pyogenic infection of the epidural space. Bacteria gain access to the epidural space either by hematogenous spread, contiguous spread from a neighboring infected structure, or through iatrogenic inoculation. The diagnosis of SEA is a challenge, largely because of its rarity. We present here a case of SEA of iatrogenic origin (post spinal anesthesia), which we treated at Tata Main Hospital, Jamshedpur.
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Supratentorial embryonal tumor in adult patient: Case report and literature review p. 733
Juan Esteban Munoz Montoya, Paula Santamaria Rodríguez, Diana Paola Duarte Mora, Mónica Sofia Benavidez Rojas, Elsa Jimena Cortes Jaramillo, Leonardo Andrés Chacón Zambrano
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_19_20  
Embryonal tumors are the new nomenclature of the primitive neuroectodermal tumors or PNET. Their supratentorial location and their manifestation in adult population are not very frequent. Embryonal tumors are conformed from undifferentiated neuroepithelial cells that have the ability to show differentiation to several cell lines. Next is presented a case from an adult male patient with a clinical headache pictures and convulsions. With imaging study that shows a meningeal enhancement with frontal lobe infiltration with histopathological study of embryonic tumor with areas of glial differentiation.
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Subdural empyema complicating a giant fronto-ethmoidal osteoma p. 737
Mohammed Benzagmout, Fayçal Lakhdar, Khalid Chakour, Mohammed El Faiz Chaoui
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_196_20  
Osteomas of the paranasal sinuses rarely lead to intracranial manifestations. We present an unusual case of a giant frontal sinus osteoma leading to subdural empyema formation. Determine the origin and the optimal surgical approach of these unusual lesions by analyzing giant osteomas of the frontal and ethmoidal sinuses in the literature. We report a rare case of giant frontoethmoidal osteoma with intracranial extension in a 34-year-old man, revealed by seizures. Neuroradiological studies revealed frontoparietal subdural empyema associated to a large osteoma in the right frontal sinus. The patient underwent surgical evacuation of the empyema and resection of the osteoma in one stage operation of decompressive craniotomy. The patient recovered very well after surgery and postoperative antibiotic therapy. This case represents in the literature only the third-reported case of subdural empyema complicating frontoethmoidal osteoma. The surgical treatment options, including open surgery techniques and endoscopic approaches, as well as pathogenesis are discussed according to the relevant literature.
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Collision tumors: A rare case report p. 741
Vernon Velho, Nidhisha Sadhwani, Anuj Bhide
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_219_19  
The presence of collision tumors without any evidence of phacomatoses, genetic syndromes, or any history of previous radiation to the brain is extremely rare. We report a case with two diverse primaries, a tentorial meningioma and a colloid cyst found in the same patient occurring in the absence of these conditions. To the best of our knowledge, a single case of a colloid cyst and meningioma found together in the same patient has been reported till date. In such cases, the surgical dilemma as to which tumor to operate first has been addressed in our case report.
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Trigeminal neuralgia secondary to cerebellar arteriovenous malformation: A report of two cases p. 745
Mardjono Tjahjadi, Vincent Wijaya, Joseph Serrone, Muhammad Sinatrya Caropeboka
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_229_20  
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) secondary to cerebellar arteriovenous malformation (cAVM) is a rare condition with only few reports existing in the literatures. Given to its rarity, the treatment armamentarium is still controversial. We reported our experiences treated two cases of TN secondary to cAVM using different strategies. The first case was successfully treated by a combination of gamma knife radiosurgery and microvascular decompression (MVD) of the trigeminal nerve. The second case was successfully treated by one-step microsurgical AVM resection and MVD of the trigeminal nerve. Postoperative immediate pain relief was achieved in both patients. Microsurgical procedure is still playing an important role in treating TN secondary to cAVM.
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A cavernous venous malformation of the orbit mimicking an idiopathic orbital inflammation p. 750
Niphon Chirapapaisan, Chanon Ngamsombat, Jantima Tanboon, Pornsuk Cheunsuchon, Sugamon Koohasawad
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_236_20  
Orbital cavernous venous malformations (CVMs) are usually slow progressing. Multiple CVMs, bilateral orbital CVMs, and acute presentations are rare. We present a rare, bilateral, orbital CVM with acute painful visual loss in the left eye. The initial clinical presentation mimicked an idiopathic orbital inflammation. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging revealed its rare location at the left orbital apex. Finally, pathology confirmed the presence of an intralesional hemorrhage of a CVM.
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A novel technique for mitigation of the ledge effect caused by the use of a large-lumen catheter during neurointervention: Beanstalk method p. 753
Tomotaka Ohshima, Shigeru Miyachi
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_238_20  
Navigating a large-caliber catheter into the intracranial artery may generate a “ledge effect,” which disturbs successful neurointervention. Particularly, navigation of a large-lumen aspiration catheter is often required to achieve fast recanalization in acute ischemic stroke cases. Occasionally, the aspirator cannot be passed through the ophthalmic artery origin because of the ledge effect. Here, we report a new technique for mitigation of the ledge effect that involves the use of double micro-guidewires (MGWs). We refer to this technique as the “beanstalk method.” We evaluated the efficacy of our idea using a silicon vascular model. Two 0.014” MGWs are used for navigation of a 0.068” aspirator. After one guidewire is navigated to the distal portion, another MGW is advanced along with the former guidewire, in a spiral fashion, similar to the growth of a beanstalk. The aspirator can then pass with the coaxial double-guidewire, although there is a severe gap in the vessel. We performed an in vitro study to demonstrate the effectiveness of the beanstalk method. The beanstalk method was very useful, even under challenging conditions that did not allow for passage of a conventional coaxial catheter or buddy-wire. The beanstalk method effectively decreases the ledge effect because of the shape of the two wires just ahead of the catheter, which contrasts with the hardness of the spiral wires. In cases involving challenging vasculature, the beanstalk method achieves smoother catheter navigation than the conventional coaxial method or buddy-wire technique.
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”White cord syndrome” of acute tetraplegia after posterior cervical decompression and resulting hypoxic brain injury p. 756
Kalyan Kumar Varma Kalidindi, Sulaiman Sath
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_240_20  
White cord syndrome (WCS) is a rare case of severe neurological deterioration after surgical decompression for cervical myelopathy. It was proposed to be secondary to an ischemia/reperfusion injury. An association of WCS with a hypoxic brain injury (HBI) has not been documented. A 63-year-old man presented to us with progressive symptoms of cervical myelopathy. Computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan findings were suggestive of an ossified posterior longitudinal ligament with cord atrophy and myelomalacia changes. He was managed surgically by decompression and fusion through a posterior approach. During the surgery, there was a sudden loss of neuromonitoring signals after laminectomy, and wake-up assessment revealed neurological deterioration. Immediate postoperative imaging revealed adequately placed screws and adequate cord decompression. A high dose of intravenous steroids was given. Repeat MRI scan on the 3rd postoperative day suggested cord edema over a large area on T2-weighted images. He was diagnosed as WCS and managed conservatively. He had persistent abdominal distension postoperatively, and a diagnostic endoscopy was advised. At the start of the procedure, the patient had a sudden-onset loss of consciousness. Electrocardiogram suggested bradyarrhythmias with hypotension. The patient was resuscitated, intubated, and shifted to intensive care unit. He was diagnosed to have a HBI. He was managed with multidisciplinary rehabilitation and discharged at 4 months' postoperatively with stable vitals. There was no improvement in the neurology or his consciousness. Spine surgeons have to be aware of this potentially disastrous complication of WCS. One should take adequate postoperative care to avoid preventable complications like HBI associated with it.
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Minimally invasive anterolateral approach for C2 neurofibroma in elderly patient p. 759
Raghavendra Kumar Sharma, Yashuhiro Yamada, Riki Tanaka, Saurabh Sharma, Kyosuke Miyatani, Saeko Higashiguchi, Tsukasa Kawase, Srikanth Talluri, Yoko Kato
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_252_19  
Conventionally ventrally located spinal tumor is approached through anterior vertebrectomy which requires bony fixation and then immobilization for a couple of months. The alternative route to deal with such type of tumor is anterolaterally to avoid the surgical and nonsurgical complications. We are reporting a minimally invasive anterolateral approach for C2 neurofibroma in an 84-year-old patient. Postoperatively this patient did not require cervical brace and postoperative discomfort was minimal. It was observed that dumbbell-shaped cervical tumor with no intradural pathology and wide neural foramina could also be taken care through the anterolateral route which did not require bony fusion or immobilization, but the expertise of the surgeon is necessary for performing these types of minimally invasive procedure to achieve the best results.
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Suprasellar tension pneumatocele after endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary macroadenoma p. 763
Anil Kumar Sharma, Rupa Mehta, Naman Chandrakar, Nikhil Singh, Nitin M Nagarkar
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_253_19  
Tension pneumatocele is a very rare but potentially fatal complication of transsphenoidal surgery that can result from an influx of air into the intracranial cavity through the cerebrospinal fluid fistula. Although transsphenoidal surgeries for pituitary adenomas are very commonly performed procedures, this complication is extremely rare. We report a case of tension pneumatocele after transsphenoidal resection of a pituitary macroadenoma. After a second endoscopic transsphenoidal procedure to remove the air and repair of the sella floor, visual acuity recovered dramatically. Tension pneumatocele is an uncommon but potentially lethal complication of transsphenoidal pituitary surgery, which can present anytime, even after years postoperatively. It is important for all skull base surgeons to be aware of this condition so that prompt treatment can be instituted.
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Primary multiple intracranial extradural hydatid cysts: A rare entity revisited p. 766
Hrushikesh Kharosekar, Anuj Bhide, Santosh Rathi, Veena Sawardekar
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_262_20  
Human hydatid disease is caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Central nervous system (CNS) echinococcosis is rare with less than 4% of cases of hydatid disease have CNS involvement. intracranial extradural hydatid cysts are rare and less than 11 case have been reported in literature. primary intracranial extradural multiple hydatid cysts are not reported as per our knowledge so we report probably the first case.
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Unusually located proximal middle cerebral artery saccular aneurysm p. 769
Raghavendra Kumar Sharma, Yashuhiro Yamada, Riki Tanaka, Saurabh Sharma, Kyosuke Miyatani, Saeko Higashiguchi, Tsukasa Kawase, Srikanth Talluri, Yoko Kato
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_264_19  
Middle cerebral aneurysms constitute almost one-third of all anterior circulation aneurysms. Most of the saccular aneurysms originate from the arterial branching sites, but origins other than at the branching site are extremely rare. In this article, we are describing a unique M1 segment middle cerebral artery aneurysm which is not related with any branching site. Our literature search suggests that atherosclerotic changes in the arterial wall and local hemodynamic forces play an important role in the development of these types of aneurysm. Surgical management is not so unique in this type of aneurysm, but due to atherosclerotic parent arterial wall and thin-walled aneurysm sac, a neurosurgeon should be more cautious.
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Neglected bilateral facet dislocation of the cervical spine with intact neurology: Reduction technique p. 773
Mantu Jain, Susanta Khuntia, Bhaskar P Rao
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_27_20  
Bilateral cervical facet dislocation is a serious injury that in majority cause neurologic deficit requiring prompt medical attention. Rarely, they retain normal neurology due to spontaneous decompression even though patients can have objective myelopathic or root compression signs. Neglected cases with normal neurology are uncommon with only few of them reported in the literature but their management is still a matter of debate. Here, we report a case of a 26-year-old female who had neglected bilateral facet dislocation with neck stiffness that was operated with posteroanterior approach with near-complete reduction and intact neurology. We describe the technique employed and discuss the literature.
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Artery of percheron and endoscopic endonasal surgery: Case report and review of the literature p. 777
Marta Rico Pereira, Fernando Muñoz Hernández, Carlos Asencio Cortés
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_370_19  
Artery of Percheron (AOP) is a rare anatomical variant in which a single perforating artery arising from the P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery supplies paramedian thalami and rostral midbrain. The occlusion of AOP produces bilateral thalamic ischemia and may be a rare complication in relation to an extended endoscopic endonasal approach. We report the case of a patient who developed AOP damage during endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES); to our knowledge, this complication has been previously reported only in one case, in relation to a second surgery. We also review the anatomical variants in thalamic vascularization and the factors that may be involved in this complication. A 52-year-old female underwent an extended endoscopic endonasal approach with intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. In the postoperative period, she presented with a decreased level of consciousness and bilateral mydriasis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed rostral midbrain and paramedian thalami ischemia congruent with AOP infarction. AOP infarction may be associated with extended EES when treating lesions with retrosellar extension. Every effort should be made to preserve the small perforating arteries. Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring of the motor and sensory pathways may not detect damage to the AOP.
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Asymptomatic brain abscess following decompressive craniotomy for stroke – A report of two cases and review of the literature p. 781
Raja K Kutty, Sunilkumar Balakrishnan Sreemathyamma, Jyothish Laila Sivanandapanicker, Abhishek Vijayan, Prasanth Asher, Anilkumar Peethambaran
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_51_20  
Stroke is a significant health problem in both developed and developing nations. The treatment strategies of stroke differ among various centers depending on the available expertise. Nevertheless, stroke contributes to a major economic burden for patients and health institutions. The recovery period after stroke is a critical period wherein various complications can develop in survivors. Among these multiple complications, the formation of brain abscess in the infarcted brain tissue is rare and less well described in the literature. Fever or signs of raised intracranial pressure are the usual manifestation of poststroke brain abscess. We present two unique cases of large brain abscess in patients who survived a malignant stroke. Both the patients were recuperating well after decompressive craniectomy for stroke without any signs of intracranial infection or raised intracranial pressure. Both the patients underwent open drainage of brain abscess, followed by delayed cranioplasty. There are only a few cases of brain abscess reported in the literature in patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy for stroke.
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Rare cases of contrast-induced encephalopathies p. 786
Kazutaka Nakao, Girish Joshi, Yuichi Hirose, Riki Tanaka, Yasuhiro Yamada, Kyosuke Miyatini, Binoy Damodar Thavara, Tsukasa Kawase, Yoko Kato
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_68_20  
Cortical blindness (CB) due to contrast-induced encephalopathy is a rare complication in endovascular procedure. Although exact mechanism is not known, disruption of blood–brain barrier (BBB) by contrast agent is supposed to be caused. We report two cases of contrast-induced encephalopathies after coil embolization of unruptured aneurysm. A 68-year-old woman with unruptured basilar artery aneurysm was treated with endovascular stent-assisted coil embolization. The procedure was successfully accomplished within 172 min using about 160 ml of contrast medium (iopamidol). However, she manifested with CB 3 h after the procedure and seizure on the next day. Immediate computed tomography revealed the cortical enhancement in both occipital lobes. Diffusion-weighted imaging–magnetic resonance imaging and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence 1 day after the procedure revealed edema in both occipital lobes with no findings of ischemia or hyperperfusion. Electroencephalography showed sharp and slow waves in both occipital lobes. She required endotracheal intubation on day 2 to maintain airways and breathing. Her sensorium improved 4 days after the procedure with administration of steroid and anticonvulsant. She was extubated on day 4 after the procedure. She was discharged with persisting CB as a sequel.
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Outcome of endovascular-treated subarachnoid bleeding triggering pulmonary and cardiac Takotsubo p. 794
Josef Finsterer, Carla Allesandara Scorza, Ana C Fiorini, Fulvio Alexandre Scorza
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_98_20  
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Calcifying pseudoneoplasms of the neuraxis: Not only surgical treatment p. 796
Andrea Boschi, Antonio Pisano, Stefano Romoli
DOI:10.4103/ajns.AJNS_113_20  
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