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Endoscopic third ventriculostomy: Role of image guidance in reducing the complications

1 Department of Neurosurgery, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull, United Kingdom
2 Department of Neurosurgery, Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan

Correspondence Address:
Muhammad Samir Irfan Wasi,
Ward 40, Neurosurgery Department, Hull Royal Infirmary, HU32JZ, Hull
United Kingdom
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ajns.AJNS_161_20

Introduction: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is performed by neurosurgeons around the world for the management of hydrocephalus. ETV has been associated with multiple complications, the most significant being iatrogenic injury to the fornix. We aim to establish the fact that the use of image guidance while planning a trajectory can reduce the incidence of complications as it significantly alters the usual approach for ETV, i.e., the coronal burr hole can be useful for young neurosurgeons to overcome the learning curve associated with the procedure. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, observational study conducted at Liaquat National Hospital. In this study, 43 patients were included who underwent ETV for hydrocephalus. Complications were divided into three major groups: arterial hemorrhage, venous hemorrhage, and injury to neural structures (fornix, hypothalamus, and oculomotor nerve). The data were compared with studies showing the complications of ETV with and without usage of image guidance. Results: Among the 43 patients who underwent ETV with image guidance, only two patients (4.65%) had iatrogenic fornix contusions. Neither of them developed memory impairment. None of the patients (0%) encountered other major iatrogenic complications, including injury to the mammillary body, basilar artery, or oculomotor nerve. Conclusion: The use of image guidance can reduce trajectory-related complications, including hemorrhage and iatrogenic injuries to the fornix. This study showed that the altered trajectory was beneficial in avoiding major neurological structures while introducing an endoscope through the cortex into the ventricular system.

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