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Proximal junctional kyphosis after pediatric angular kyphotic deformity correction: Are we missing something?

 Indian Spinal Injuries Centre, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Abhinandan Reddy Mallepally,
Department of Spine Services, Indian Spinal Injuries Centre, Vasant Kunj, Sector C, New Delhi - 110 070
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ajns.AJNS_311_20

Purpose: Corrective maneuvers in an angular kyphotic deformity have its own problems including early complications such as neurological deficit and late complications such as proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) and proximal junctional failure (PJF). This article discusses the probable mechanisms, leading to PJK in pediatric severe angular kyphotic deformities and preventive strategies for the same. We will also assess natural course of untreated PJK and its devastating consequences. Materials and Methods: Three patients, two 13-year males presented with progressive, painless thoracolumbar kyphoscoliotic deformity, with segmental kyphosis 100° and 140° and scoliosis of 33° and 78°, respectively, and one 14-year-old female presented with angular kyphotic deformity of 60° with apex at D11-12 level. Results: Posterior vertebral column resection with segmental deformity correction with good coronal and sagittal balance was done. In the follow-up, PJF was seen. Second surgery was done with the extension of instrumentation to D4 along with deformity correction in both the male patients. The female patient did not opt for a revision surgery, and we are following the natural history of this case. Conclusion: In severe thoracolumbar angular kyphotic deformities with normal or negative sagittal balance, it might be a safer option to select the sagittal stable vertebra as upper instrumented vertebra based on the C2 plumb line on the preoperative standing lateral radiographs. However, a study with a larger sample size is needed to validate our hypothesis.

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    -  Mallepally AR
    -  Mahajan R
    -  Marathe N
    -  Nanda A
    -  Rustagi T
    -  Chhabra HS
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