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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 4: The fundamental experiment to confirm the stability of biopsy needle during frameless free-handed navigation-guided biopsy. (a) A layout photograph of the experimental system. The biopsy needle is horizontally clamped to the endoscope arm and the end of the needle is hung with the tested weights and the shift distance of the needle tip is dotted and measured on the backboard. (b) Approximate graphs showing correlation between load on the end of the needle and shift of the needle tip for the three-quarter point (single asterisk) and the half-way point (double asterisks)

Figure 4: The fundamental experiment to confirm the stability of biopsy needle during frameless free-handed navigation-guided biopsy. (a) A layout photograph of the experimental system. The biopsy needle is horizontally clamped to the endoscope arm and the end of the needle is hung with the tested weights and the shift distance of the needle tip is dotted and measured on the backboard. (b) Approximate graphs showing correlation between load on the end of the needle and shift of the needle tip for the three-quarter point (single asterisk) and the half-way point (double asterisks)